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There was a hard disk failure on my laptop. 500GB SATA disk. So I'll have to replace the disk and try to recover user data. Disk is about 4 year old. Not sure how serious the disk corruption is. I did a disk check with Smartcontrol tool, disk was attached via extenal enclosure via USB port. Results:

Complete error log:

SMART Error Log Version: 1
ATA Error Count: 272 (device log contains only the most recent five errors)
    CR = Command Register [HEX]
    FR = Features Register [HEX]
    SC = Sector Count Register [HEX]
    SN = Sector Number Register [HEX]
    CL = Cylinder Low Register [HEX]
    CH = Cylinder High Register [HEX]
    DH = Device/Head Register [HEX]
    DC = Device Command Register [HEX]
    ER = Error register [HEX]
    ST = Status register [HEX]
Powered_Up_Time is measured from power on, and printed as
DDd+hh:mm:SS.sss where DD=days, hh=hours, mm=minutes,
SS=sec, and sss=millisec. It "wraps" after 49.710 days.

Error 272 occurred at disk power-on lifetime: 8932 hours (372 days + 4 hours)
  When the command that caused the error occurred, the device was active or idle.

  After command completion occurred, registers were:
  ER ST SC SN CL CH DH
  -- -- -- -- -- -- --
  40 51 08 c8 0c 6b ee  Error: UNC 8 sectors at LBA = 0x0e6b0cc8 = 241896648

  Commands leading to the command that caused the error were:
  CR FR SC SN CL CH DH DC   Powered_Up_Time  Command/Feature_Name
  -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --  ----------------  --------------------
  25 00 08 c8 0c 6b e0 00      01:30:25.296  READ DMA EXT
  25 00 08 c8 0c 6b e0 00      01:30:21.530  READ DMA EXT
  25 00 08 c8 0c 6b e0 00      01:30:17.763  READ DMA EXT
  25 00 08 c8 0c 6b e0 00      01:30:14.067  READ DMA EXT
  25 00 08 c0 0c 6b e0 00      01:30:14.067  READ DMA EXT

Error 271 occurred at disk power-on lifetime: 8932 hours (372 days + 4 hours)
  When the command that caused the error occurred, the device was active or idle.

  After command completion occurred, registers were:
  ER ST SC SN CL CH DH
  -- -- -- -- -- -- --
  40 51 08 c8 0c 6b ee  Error: UNC 8 sectors at LBA = 0x0e6b0cc8 = 241896648

  Commands leading to the command that caused the error were:
  CR FR SC SN CL CH DH DC   Powered_Up_Time  Command/Feature_Name
  -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --  ----------------  --------------------
  25 00 08 c8 0c 6b e0 00      01:30:21.530  READ DMA EXT
  25 00 08 c8 0c 6b e0 00      01:30:17.763  READ DMA EXT
  25 00 08 c8 0c 6b e0 00      01:30:14.067  READ DMA EXT
  25 00 08 c0 0c 6b e0 00      01:30:14.067  READ DMA EXT
  25 00 08 b8 0c 6b e0 00      01:30:14.066  READ DMA EXT

Error 270 occurred at disk power-on lifetime: 8932 hours (372 days + 4 hours)
  When the command that caused the error occurred, the device was active or idle.

  After command completion occurred, registers were:
  ER ST SC SN CL CH DH
  -- -- -- -- -- -- --
  40 51 08 c8 0c 6b ee  Error: UNC 8 sectors at LBA = 0x0e6b0cc8 = 241896648

  Commands leading to the command that caused the error were:
  CR FR SC SN CL CH DH DC   Powered_Up_Time  Command/Feature_Name
  -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --  ----------------  --------------------
  25 00 08 c8 0c 6b e0 00      01:30:17.763  READ DMA EXT
  25 00 08 c8 0c 6b e0 00      01:30:14.067  READ DMA EXT
  25 00 08 c0 0c 6b e0 00      01:30:14.067  READ DMA EXT
  25 00 08 b8 0c 6b e0 00      01:30:14.066  READ DMA EXT
  25 00 08 b0 0c 6b e0 00      01:30:14.065  READ DMA EXT

Error 269 occurred at disk power-on lifetime: 8932 hours (372 days + 4 hours)
  When the command that caused the error occurred, the device was active or idle.

  After command completion occurred, registers were:
  ER ST SC SN CL CH DH
  -- -- -- -- -- -- --
  40 51 08 c8 0c 6b ee  Error: UNC 8 sectors at LBA = 0x0e6b0cc8 = 241896648

  Commands leading to the command that caused the error were:
  CR FR SC SN CL CH DH DC   Powered_Up_Time  Command/Feature_Name
  -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --  ----------------  --------------------
  25 00 08 c8 0c 6b e0 00      01:30:14.067  READ DMA EXT
  25 00 08 c0 0c 6b e0 00      01:30:14.067  READ DMA EXT
  25 00 08 b8 0c 6b e0 00      01:30:14.066  READ DMA EXT
  25 00 08 b0 0c 6b e0 00      01:30:14.065  READ DMA EXT
  25 00 08 a8 0c 6b e0 00      01:30:14.065  READ DMA EXT

Error 268 occurred at disk power-on lifetime: 8932 hours (372 days + 4 hours)
  When the command that caused the error occurred, the device was active or idle.

  After command completion occurred, registers were:
  ER ST SC SN CL CH DH
  -- -- -- -- -- -- --
  40 51 08 98 fb 6a ee  Error: UNC 8 sectors at LBA = 0x0e6afb98 = 241892248

  Commands leading to the command that caused the error were:
  CR FR SC SN CL CH DH DC   Powered_Up_Time  Command/Feature_Name
  -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --  ----------------  --------------------
  25 00 08 98 fb 6a e0 00      01:30:06.407  READ DMA EXT
  25 00 08 98 fb 6a e0 00      01:30:02.629  READ DMA EXT
  25 00 08 98 fb 6a e0 00      01:29:58.851  READ DMA EXT
  25 00 08 98 fb 6a e0 00      01:29:55.092  READ DMA EXT
  25 00 08 90 fb 6a e0 00      01:29:55.092  READ DMA EXT

enter image description here The questions is, can I continue to use this hard disc after reformatting? Is it damaged only data on disk, or is damaged the physical disk itself? If further usage is possible, how I should format this disk to fix damaged sectors?

4

To increase your chances of recovering your data from that disk, you should stop using that disk immediately. Unmount it now. When your new disk arrives, boot a plain Linux distro to command prompt, and ddrescue the old disk onto the new one, as described here. Remember: do not mount any file systems from the old disk, to avoid causing further damage.

As to your question about "fixing" it by formatting it -- there is no such thing. Once the disk is on its way to dying, there's no fixing it. Yes, you could continue "using" it, but I can't see how you can possibly trust it with your data. You could maybe repurpose it as a beer coaster.

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