https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Executable_and_Linkable_Format mentions core dumps.
In what form of ELF is a core dump file? Relocatable, executable, or shared?
7.3 Object Files
Object ﬁles come in three forms:
Relocatable object ﬁle. Contains binary code and data in a form that can be combined with other relocatable object ﬁles at compile time to create an executable object ﬁle.
Executable object ﬁle. Contains binary code and data in a form that can be copied directly into memory and executed.
Shared object ﬁle. A special type of relocatable object ﬁle that can be loaded into memory and linked dynamically, at either load time or run time.