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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Executable_and_Linkable_Format mentions core dumps.

In what form of ELF is a core dump file? Relocatable, executable, or shared?

CSAPP says

7.3 Object Files

Object files come in three forms:

Relocatable object file. Contains binary code and data in a form that can be combined with other relocatable object files at compile time to create an executable object file.

Executable object file. Contains binary code and data in a form that can be copied directly into memory and executed.

Shared object file. A special type of relocatable object file that can be loaded into memory and linked dynamically, at either load time or run time.

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Neither of those three.

The type of the ELF file is determined by the e-type

Name      Value    Meaning
ET_NONE   0        No file type
ET_REL    1        Relocatable file
ET_EXEC   2        Executable file
ET_DYN    3        Shared object file
ET_CORE   4        Core file
ET_LOOS   0xfe00   Operating system-specific
ET_HIOS   0xfeff   Operating system-specific
ET_LOPROC 0xff00   Processor-specific
ET_HIPROC 0xffff   Processor-specific

And a core dump is ET_CORE.

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