I am on an Ubuntu 16.04 LTS machine and in preparation for an upgrade to 18.04 LTS I want to move all /home directories (in fact there is only /home/juergen) to a separate, now free partition that I happen to have.

I found two good tutorials on how to do this correctly, namely


and (in German)


I understand them fully, but have a question about the optimal set of options to use for moving the home directory data.

The first source recommends

sudo rsync -aXS --exclude='/*/.gvfs' /home/. /media/home/.

the second one

rsync -avxH --progress /home/ /mnt/tmp

I understand that the --exclude from the first source is reasonable and --progress from the second one too and that they can be combined. But what about the other options? S (preserving sparsity) seems to be useful as I generated artificially for some test purposes some very big 'files with holes' in my home-directory. H (hard links) looks worthwhile too - or could it be a problem to preserve hard-links? X seems also good: as I want to preserve everything and this promises to preserve 'extended attributes' (whatever this means). So should I simply combine them all?

But even then there might be some options lurking, that would be useful? I must admit I can not come to a clear conclusion with all these rsync options (in my own backups I use rsync -avzu).

Many thanks in advance for your answers!

2 Answers 2


I would do rsync -aPHAXS source dest if it were me. But you also talk about moving them and rsync copies so maybe just mv is enough?

  • Actually I do not know this, but I think 'mv' would destroy a lot of properties associated with a file, especially times - or is this untrue? Aug 18, 2020 at 22:30
  • Personally I wouldn't use the -P/--partial option. Using mv is really not recommended. This command is not safe from too many points of view. Aug 18, 2020 at 23:23

So should I simply combine them all?

Yes. You could also add A, U and H for good measure, so the net result will be sudo rsync -aXSAUH --progress --preallocate source/ destination.

The --preallocate option is very nice IMO because it avoids file fragmentation.

Comparing the checksums of the original and destination files is also hugely recommended. At least I always do that to avoid probable interface errors. There are multiple ways to do that, including diff, cmp, find/xargs/md5sum, etc.

Personally I'd use e2image because rsync cannot copy file creation times. Also, copying an image is almost always a lot faster than copying individual files.

Here's an example:

e2image -rap /dev/source_partition /dev/destination_partition

The meaning of these options can be found in man e2image. You will need to remount the source_partition ro before running this command. There are other options as well: https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Disk_cloning

Lastly you could delete everything except /home in your / folder and simply install new Ubuntu into a new partition - that's my personal favorite because your data will be untouched and / doesn't actually take a lot of space.

  • If I understand your example correctly, it would be necessary, that /home is already in a separate partition before the copy. Unfortunately as things now are, /home is just a directory in a big / partition (as I used Ubuntu defaults on installing). Aug 18, 2020 at 21:58
  • I found no option -U (did you mean -u)? Aug 18, 2020 at 22:09
  • Maybe my rsync is newer than yours, cause man rsync here says --atimes, -U preserve access (use) times. Aug 18, 2020 at 22:19
  • Maybe, I have, rsync version 3.1.1 protocol version 31 (from rsync --help). I will think about yout proposal, to use the new partition as the root for a new installation. The main problem with this for me is, that I have lots of packages added to the default installation and need a way to migrate them to a new Ubuntu version, so that I considered the 'upgrade' way as the only possible. Aug 18, 2020 at 22:27
  • @JürgenBöhm This might be what you're looking for: askubuntu.com/a/37704 Installing fresh is almost always safer than updating even for Linux. Aug 18, 2020 at 22:54

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