Ok finally I found that it's mainly dependent of the filesystem and the volume
identification hex code is/should be present in the filesystem documentation
as seen below for NTFS and EXT4
Conclusion: There is not specific command or tool only for listing partitions hex code besides the function of cgdisk, gdisk, cfdisk, fdisk, etc while creating the partition.
gdisk - list partition hex code previous to creation
cgdisk, cfdisk and fdisk - list partition hex code during creation only
NTFS Partition $VOLUME_INFORMATION 0x70 Attribute
EXT4 Partition Identifier for MBR (right column)
This post partially answers the question also
Why does parted need a filesystem type when creating a partition, and how does its action differ from a utility like mkfs.ext4?
"A partition can have a type. The partition type is a hint as in "this partition is designated to serve a certain function". Many partition types are associated with certain file-systems, though the association is not always strict or unambiguous. You can expect a partition of type 0x07 to have a Microsoft compatible file-system (e.g. FAT, NTFS or exFAT) and 0x83 to have a native Linux file-system (e.g. ext2/3/4)."
So apparently the code is not always strictly associated as shown in the previous answer.
For example EXT4 83h Any native Linux file system (see 93h, corresponds with 43h)
Or Solaris ZFS for example as seen in BFh and 82h sections
Additional examples information gathered during the research
ZFS Attributes BF01 BF07 EF02
BF01 special hex type code Solaris Partition
BF07 special hex type code Solaris Reserved 1
EF02 special hex type code BIOS Boot Partition