The relationship between user and kernel virtual addresses has been discussed in a few questions before (links below), but as far as I understand it, the user process cannot read nor write to the Kernel addresses.

So, how does a user process share and receive data from the kernel?

Is it through memory? If so, where in the memory layout? Maybe CPU registers?

Related questions:

Memory layout

  • You will get more technical answers than this: but all that is needed is for the kernel to read and write user process space. Every system call provides user-mode addresses and sizes for the kernel to access. Consider the kernel exec's a user processes in the first place. It has write access to the whole of user space during that process (including being able to initialise memory that is read-only for the process itself). Jul 7, 2020 at 19:34

2 Answers 2


Let's consider an example: a simple x86 Hello World program for Linux, that prints a message to stdout and exits. It needs to pass a couple of data items to the kernel:

  • Text string to output,
  • Exit code.

Here's the assembly code (to be compiled with FASM):

format ELF executable
segment readable executable

; system call numbers
; file descriptors

entry $
    mov eax, SYS_WRITE
    mov ebx, STDOUT
    mov ecx, message
    mov edx, messageLength
    int 0x80

    mov eax, SYS_EXIT
    xor ebx, ebx ; exit code 0
    int 0x80

    db "Hello, world!",0xa

All this program does to fulfill its main goal (message output) is

  • Set appropriate CPU registers to the values representing the system call number (for sys_write syscall), file descriptor (stdout), address of the message and the message length
  • Do the system call, in this example by means of software interrupt 0x80

Similar sequence is to exit: set the registers to the system call number and exit code, and do the system call.

Which registers to set to which values is defined by the system call calling convention.

After the kernel starts executing the syscall handler, this handler reads the values of the registers from the application's context and interprets them according to the calling convention. In particular, when it sees that system call is sys_write, it takes the length and address of the message, and uses them to read from the user space memory. Then these data (along with file descriptor) are passed to the drivers that will do the actual work.

  • Thanks. Is it actually doing a software interrupt (software IRQ)? Is that the same as throwing an exception? (are they one and the same thing?). Also, any particular reason why the type of system call is defined on a register but the actual contents of the sys call in user space memory? e.g. why not have everything in user space memory? Is that because the precise location in user space memory is not fixed or established for every sys call?
    – Josh
    Jul 8, 2020 at 4:32
  • @Josh it is actually a software interrupt, see the documentation for the INT x86 instruction. It's not the same as exception (this word also has multiple meanings: e.g. CPU exception, C++ exception, which one did you mean?). Also, it's one of the syscall mechanisms. On i686 also the sysenter mechanism is available. Where the parameters of the syscall are passed is defined by the calling convention. In most cases, the parameters—i.e. the values you pass to the libc wrapper function like write(2)—are passed through registers, along with the syscall number. The pointers just point to memory
    – Ruslan
    Jul 8, 2020 at 6:43
  • Thanks @Rusian - By exception I mean a CPU exception. Like a stack overflow exception, e.g. when the CPU pushes data to the process stack and the OS may need to grow the stack, or a page fault exception when a page in virtual memory isn't available in physical memory. I thought these things are called CPU exceptions and are different from a software IRQ, but I could be wrong.
    – Josh
    Jul 8, 2020 at 12:43
  • 1
    @Josh CPU exceptions are faults that happen (usually) unintentionally, due to some kind of violation (invalid access, division by zero, invalid instruction etc.). Software interrupt (not an IRQ!) is a deliberate call from the program code to an interrupt handler (ISR). It can result in execution of the same ISR that would handle an IRQ mapped to this vector (if any is), or a fault handler, but they are all separate. Don't mix an IRQ and a software interrupt: although to an ISR they will look very similar, an IRQ is a hardware event, while a software interrupt is a software instruction.
    – Ruslan
    Jul 8, 2020 at 12:55
  • Thanks @Ruslan. Got it!
    – Josh
    Jul 8, 2020 at 13:05

the user process cannot read nor write to the Kernel addresses

No, but the kernel can read and write the user addresses, if/when it wants to. Linux system calls pass the system call number and arguments in CPU registers. (Look up something like "Linux system call calling convention".)

Some of those arguments may be pointers, in which case the kernel knows to look for the data in the pointed-to location in the user address space. As far as I've understood, the kernel actually copies the data to kernel space before using it. (otherwise another user-space thread might modify the data during a system call.) But the location of the data could be anywhere in the user address space, as required by the program.

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