I have not had the chance to read enough about Android, Linux, or UNIX to answer this myself.
sudo works on a Linux machine but doesn't work on Android unless you root the mobile device (e.g. Samsung GT-N8013). Why does the mobile device require to be rooted, but not the typical Linux install?
The context of my question is related to https://stackoverflow.com/questions/14019698/adb-shell-sudo-on-windows-7/14019726#14019726
(Also, is there any way for a program to ask to run as
root on Android, the same way you have escalation of privileges to "run as administrator" on Windows? If you think this question should be on its own thread, I can create one)