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I do not really understand the forwarding from Journald to Rsyslog.

Basically I understood it in the way that the 'pipeline' is built up as follows:

Kernel logs through printk() → /proc/kmesg ← rsyslog → writes to log file according to rules in rsyslog.conf

Userspace logs → /dev/log ← rsyslog → writes to log file according to rules in rsyslog.conf

This results in the various log files, such as /var/log/syslog etc.

As in the rsyslog.conf snippet, messages from the facility 'user' are also written to syslog and are therefore stored twice, right?

#
# First some standard log files.  Log by facility.
#
auth,authpriv.* /var/log/auth.log
*.*;auth,authpriv.none -/var/log/syslog
#cron.* /var/log/cron.log
daemon.* -/var/log/daemon.log
kern.* -/var/log/kern.log
lpr.* -/var/log/lpr.log
mail.* -/var/log/mail.log
user.* -/var/log/user.log

So far so clear, if I've got it right.

However, /dev/log seems to be linked to

$ ls -lah /dev/log
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 28 Apr 15 16:30 /dev/log -> /run/systemd/journal/dev-log

Why is that?

To get back to my real question. Where does Journald get the logs? I only know systemd-cat. Or also from /dev/log // /run/systemd/journal/dev-log?

Journald forwards the logs to syslog (standard in Debian according to https://manpages.debian.org/testing/manpages-de/journald.conf.5.de.html). Shouldn't every message be duplicated in syslog?

To close the loop, I am at this point because I am planning a log management environment and am faced with the question of where to get my logs from.

I thank you in advance and hope that you can help me.

  • This is pretty much unix.stackexchange.com/q/205883/5132 again, differing only in incidentals, with a bit of unix.stackexchange.com/a/332315/5132 thrown in. – JdeBP Apr 15 at 19:23
  • 1
    Thanks for the links. I have already read the first one and the second one has given me some additional clarity, but unfortunately not everything. If both rsyslog and journald read from /dev/log (or the link and socket provided for syslog) and journald on Debian has ForwardToSyslog enabled by default, why don't all messages duplicate? – rosaLux161 Apr 15 at 20:42
  • That's already covered in unix.stackexchange.com/a/294206/5132 . – JdeBP Apr 16 at 10:47
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    Does this answer your question? Understand logging in Linux – AdminBee Apr 21 at 8:16
  • 1
    @Wimateeka That is true. My comment was auto-generated while reviewing this question, because I flagged it as possible duplicate to one in the link. – AdminBee May 5 at 13:34

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