It is hard to explain it with language elements (at least with my english skills) - so I decided to make an example based answer:
The root directory is often called the highest or uppest directory. This is only partially true. This directory is assumed as the highest directory. You could describe it with "from this directory I will start - I assume this is the highest directory and there is nothing above".
Some examples to clarify what "root" means:
- Imagine you run a web server and set the root of a domain
/var/www/html/example.com. Now you create a file
/var/www/html/example.com/test.html. If you open
https://example.com/test.html in your browser. you get the content of the created file. If you set
/var/www/html as root, you must open
- If you
chroot into the directory
/home/test/testSystem/. The root of this environment would be
/home/test/testSystem. If you do an
ls inside the chrooted environment
ls / you would get the content of
Mountpoint with root
For example an USB contains:
│ ├── subfile1
│ └── subfile2
If you mount this USB to
/mnt you would get the normal output you expect because you use the
/ directory of the USB as root:
531 137 0:52 / /mnt rw,nosuid,nodev shared:75 - /dev/sdb [...]
So in the most cases, the root of mount points would be indeed
Mountpoint with different root than
You can try this by yourself:
Bind two directorys in you filesystem together with
$ mount --bind /var/test1 /var/test2
The output of
mountinfo would be something like:
564 29 0:26 /var/test1 /var/test2 rw,relatime shared:1 - ext4 /dev/sda rw [...]
The root of mountpoint located under
/var/test1. The mount source (what you have mounted) is
Back to the USB example:
If you now mount the content of
/mnt/dir1 to something other, you would get the mount root
/dir1 and the mount source would be
/dev/sdb (the USB). The
/mnt part is dropped here.
"Why hiding the /run part"
/run is dropped because it is a tmpfs partition.
Why are those parts removed?
In the USB example we mounted
/home/test/usbmnt/. The output would be:
564 29 0:26 /dir1 /home/test/usbmnt/ rw,relatime shared:1 - ext4 /dev/sdb rw [...]
You see we mounted the content of /dir1 (from the USB and NOT from your hard drive) to a directory called usbmnt.
Maybe it is helpful to read it as
If the root would be given as
/mnt/usb/dir1 we couldn't know what is the real location on the USB: It could be
/usb/dir1 or maybe