I have searched extensively for this answer and cannot find it... might anyone please know how to set up a linux software mdadm RAID 1 array, such that the computer will still be bootable and repairable if something happens to a RAIDed partition or disk? My impression is that the array can sometimes work fine if you yank out one of the disks, but if you don't mirror the grub installs or boot partitions (if any) or UUIDs/names correctly, the array may fail to boot.

The problem I am trying to solve is that I would like both 1) RAID 1 functionality and 2) snapshot functionality, so a system update/upgrade can be reverted. Could someone please suggest a partition/format/grub/script/etc. setup that achieves this? This is a personal and not a production system. Examples further down.

What I've tried: I have experimented with btrfs raid 1 (but I'm not sure if the permanent-ro bug is fixed yet, and it I'm sadly stuck writing this with an unbootable degraded btrfs raid 1 (not set up as above)); I would prefer not to use zfs (since installation and partition tool integration seems lacking due to the license issues); I would prefer not to use LVM snapshotting (because of the race conditions which must assuredly exist); reverting aptitude updates (or this) seems like it may cause problems. btrfs snapshotting works wonders, but the computer being unbootable after a disk failure with a btrfs RAID is my current issue (I am trying to figure out a way to create a bootable USB from which I could actually run btrfs tools (since one can't reformat the active disk, and I don't have access to chroot/debootstrap/etc., so maybe I should just insert two USB keys with debian-installer), but throwing out that system seems almost simpler).

Proposed solution: The solution I'm hoping to explore is using mdadm (over ext4 I guess), and whenever I use aptitude, I will "manually snapshot" by excruciatingly dding everything on the root partition to a rollback partition of the same size (maybe on a spare disk), with dd if=/dev/md# of=/dev/sd# bs=??M; sync (on success, nothing is necessary; on failure, hopefully the system can boot and be recovered with dd if=/dev/sd# of/dev/md#)

(I'm trying to use GPT partition names here but I'm not that familiar; please correct me if wrong. I guess it would be dd if=/dev/disk/by-???/??? of=/dev/disk/by-partlabel/rollback-root, but I'm not sure how one could label md arrays and if they'd need to by ext4 systems to accept a label.)


sda UUID=10                   [?? xxxxxxxxxxxxx          ]
sdb UUID=20                   [?? xxxxxxxxxxxxx          ]
                                    ^ root and/or boot partitions, in md0(,md1? etc)

sdc LABEL=rollback-root UUID=30 [?? _empty_space_          ]


  • scenario 1: drive failure - If either drive breaks or is removed, then the bootloader is still safe (not lost, not corrupted), and allows booting into degraded mode (or maybe a barebones recovery partition); this may require user intervention. For example if /dev/sda no longer exists, the mobo will pass over it since it can't find grub in either the MBR or wherever it lives in UEFI land, check its next disk in order normal like /dev/sdb, find a 'backup' grub, then use that one.
    • ideally, booting into degraded mode would not require user intervention (e.g. if located remotely)
  • scenario 2: upgrade failure - if an upgrade happens, and the system becomes unusable (maybe the kernel panics on boot), one can boot from the snapshot partition, then dd the snapshot partition back over the original bootable root/boot partition(s), including overwriting the grub install.
    • in remote-world, I'm not aware of anything that will "try to boot, and failing that, revert" (I believe Android may do this somehow by setting some fallback flag, like setting a different resolution on some platforms "are you sure you want to change this resolution? N seconds")
    • if an upgrade happens, and the system and bootloader become broken, I can insert a recovery usb/disk and... fix it somehow? (perhaps someone is aware of a nice way to chain bootloaders from a 'safe' bootloader while allowing aptitude free reign to update what it thinks is the primary grub) (or perhaps I also backup grub onto the rollback disk some...how, then boot from the rollback disk via the motherboard, then restore grub some...how?). I am aware that one cannot merely dd the MBR or ESP... how does managing those in these scenarios even work?


In such a hypothetical setup, how would one sync grub configs between the two RAID partition(s) while being resilient to numbering issues? What happens to the grub config if an aptitude upgrade changes it? Is the nofail option necessary, or on by default? Would btrfs RAID with a dedicated 'rescue' partition or USB key be easier? (in the case of a partition, how would I set up GRUB to enable that?)

There are likely some major issues with the above, but I hope it illustrated the end goal.

Thank you!

Potentially useful references:


I'm somewhat puzzled by your low expectations in this question.

  1. RAID1 that works when a disk is removed

This is what RAID1 does. What is often missing from such setups is the manual duplication of the grub boot loader onto each of the disks.

grub-install /dev/sda
grub-install /dev/sdb
  1. Snapshot for rollback of failed upgrades

I use LVM on top of RAID extensively. (Often LVM on top of LUKS on top of RAID.) More recently I've been trying ZFS, but before I put that into heavy use I need to see the encryption layer working.

I do note that in my "real world" configurations I tend to run root directly on the RAID1 rather than on an LVM partition, but as a relatively small partition (10s of GB rather than 100s). Disks permitting, one option might be to run a three-way RAID1 mirror, and before a major upgrade split off one of the three mirrors, joining it back only on success.

I have run boot on RAID1 and root on LVM without issues. I'm curious to know what leads you to worry about "the race conditions which must assuredly exist". Although I'm only one datapoint I've never had a boot error I couldn't fix, and none has been related to LVM. (grub occasionally gets itself upset over which partition contains what, particularly when IPMI virtual disks get added and removed.)

  1. General

    • Use IPMI for management of a remote system; don't rely on the OS (or grub).
    • Take proper external backups. Not (just) snapshots. RAID1 is not a backup.
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  • Thank you. What would the ideal GRUB configuration be in this case? How could I tell it is properly installed on the secondary disk's ESP (and could one only GRUB at a time be specified via the UEFI boot vars)? (Thanks it's not for a backup; the name of the partition was perhaps a poor choice; edited renaming it 'rollback'.) (LVM issues were partly from serverfault.com/a/279577 (albeit a bit dated).) (Thank you for the IPMI suggestion.) – ninjagecko Jan 29 at 17:29
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    I've experimented with two (or more) grub boot menu entries, having one for each bootable physical disk. Provided I have access to the console at boot time - directly or via IPMI - this can work satisfactorily, bearing in mind that "a disk not working" is expected to be a rare and short-term event. – roaima Jan 29 at 17:53

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