essentially the meat of my question revolves around launching Chromium from the terminal.
If I launch Chromium through the GUI I can log into my Google account just like normal, although if I try to launch Chromium via the command
chromium-browser and try to authenticate, I get the message "Something went wrong Sorry, something went wrong there. Try again." with no further information.
I have also tried launching the regular Chrome browser from the command line with the command
google-chrome and I am able to authenticate like normal.
This is on Ubuntu 18.04 LTS