I have a log file and I need to append timestamps to each line as they get added. So I'm looking for script that appends timestamps to each entry in log lines and which could run as a cron job.
The General Way
$ cat input.log | sed -e "s/^/$(date -R) /" >> output.log
How it works:
catreads file called
input.logand just prints it to its standard output stream.
Normally the standard output is connected to a terminal, but this little script contains
|so shell redirects the standard output of
catto standard input of
sedreads data (as
catproduces it), processes it (according to the script provided with
-eoption) and then prints it to its standard output. The script
"s/^/$(date -R) /"means replace every start of line to a text generated by
date -Rcommand (the general construction for replace command is:
Then according to
bashredirects the output of
sedto a file called
>means replace file contents and
>>means append to the end).
The problem is the
$(date -R) evaluated once when you run the script so it will insert current timestamp to the beginning of each line. The current timestamp may be far from a moment when a message was generated. To avoid it you have to process messages as they are written to the file, not with a cron job.
The standard stream redirection described above called pipe. You can redirect it not just with
| between commands in the script, but through a FIFO file (aka named pipe). One program will write to the file and another will read data and receive it as the first sends.
Pick an example:
$ mkfifo foo.log.fifo $ while true; do cat foo.log.fifo | sed -e "s/^/$(date -R) /" >> foo.log; done; # have to open a second terminal at this point $ echo "foo" > foo.log.fifo $ echo "bar" > foo.log.fifo $ echo "baz" > foo.log.fifo $ cat foo.log Tue, 20 Nov 2012 15:32:56 +0400 foo Tue, 20 Nov 2012 15:33:27 +0400 bar Tue, 20 Nov 2012 15:33:30 +0400 baz
How it works:
mkfifocreates a named pipe
while true; do sed ... ; doneruns an infinite loop and at every iteration it runs
foo.log.fifoto its standard input;
sedblocks in waiting for input data and then processes a received message and prints it to standard output redirected to
At this point you have to open a new terminal window because the loop occupies the current terminal.
echo ... > foo.log.fifoprints a message to its standard output redirected to the fifo file and
sedreceives it and processes and writes to a regular file.
The important note is the fifo just as any other pipe has no sense if one of its sides is not connected to any process. If you try to write to a pipe the current process will block until someone would read data on the other side of the pipe. If you want to read from a pipe the process will block until someone will write data to the pipe. The
sed loop in the example above does nothing (sleeps) until you do
For your particular situation you just configure your application to write log messages to the fifo file. If you can't configure it - simply delete the original log file and create a fifo file. But note again that if the
sed loop will die for some reason - your program will be blocked upon attempting to
write to the file until someone will
read from the fifo.
The benefit is the current timestamp evaluated and attached to a message as the program writes it to the file.
Asynchronous Processing With
To make writing to the log and processing more independent you can use two regular files with
tailf. An application will write message to a raw file and other process read new lines (follow to writes asynchronously) and process data with writing to the second file.
Let's take an example:
# will occupy current shell $ tailf -n0 bar.raw.log | while read line; do echo "$(date -R) $line" >> bar.log; done; $ echo "foo" >> bar.raw.log $ echo "bar" >> bar.raw.log $ echo "baz" >> bar.raw.log $ cat bar.log Wed, 21 Nov 2012 16:15:33 +0400 foo Wed, 21 Nov 2012 16:15:36 +0400 bar Wed, 21 Nov 2012 16:15:39 +0400 baz
How it works:
tailfprocess that will follow writes to
bar.raw.logand print them to standard output redirected to the infinite
while read ... echoloop. This loop performs two actions: read data from standard input to a buffer variable called
lineand then write generated timestamp with the following buffered data to the
Write some messages to the
bar.raw.log. You have to do this in a separate terminal window because the first one will be occupied by
tailfwhich will follow the writes and do its job. Quite simple.
The pros is your application would not block if you kill
tailf. The cons is less accurate timestamps and duplicating log files.
You could use the
ts perl script from
$ echo test | ts %F-%H:%M:%.S 2012-11-20-13:34:10.731562 test
Modified from Dmitry Vasilyanov's answer.
In a bash script, you can redirect and wrap output with timestamps line by line on the fly.
When to use:
- For bash script jobs, insert the line before main script
- For non-script jobs, create a script to call the program.
- For services control by system, it's better to use
tailffor the log file as Dmitry Vasilyanov said.
Here's an example named
#!/bin/bash exec &> >(while read line; do echo "$(date +'%h %d %H:%M:%S') $line" >> foo.log; done;) echo "foo" sleep 1 echo "bar" >&2 sleep 1 echo "foobar"
And the result:
$ bash foo.sh $ cat foo.log May 12 20:04:11 foo May 12 20:04:12 bar May 12 20:04:13 foobar
How it works
exec &>Redirect stdout and stderr to same place
>( ... )pipe outputs to an asynchronous inner command
- The rest works as Dmitry Vasilyanov explained.
pipe timestamp and log to file
#!/bin/bash exec &> >(while read line; do echo "$(date +'%h %d %H:%M:%S') $line" >> foo.log; done;) echo "some script commands" /path-to/some-thrid-party-programs
Or print timestamp and log to stdout
#!/bin/bash exec &> >(while read line; do echo "$(date +'%h %d %H:%M:%S') $line"; done;) echo "some script commands" /path-to/some-thrid-party-programs
then save them in
* * * * * root /path-to-script/foo.sh >> /path-to-log-file/foo.log
ts this way to get an entry with a time stamp in an error log for a script I use to get Cacti filled with statistics of a remote host.
To test Cacti I use
rand to add some random values which I use for temperature graphs to monitor my systems temperature.
Pushmonstats.sh is a script that collects system temperature statistics of my PC and sends that to a Raspberry Pi on which Cacti runs. Some time ago, the network was stuck. I only got SSH time outs in my error log. Unfortunately, no time entries in that log. I didn't know how to add a time stamp to a log entry. So, after some searches on the Internet, I stumbled upon this post and this is what I made using
To test it, I used an unknown option to
rand. Which gave an error to stderr. To capture it, I redirect it to a temporary file. Then I use cat to show the contents of the file and pipe it to
ts, add a time format which I found on this post and finally log it to the error file. Then I clear the contents of the temporary file, otherwise I get double entries for the same error.
* * * * * /home/monusr/bin/pushmonstats.sh 1>> /home/monusr/pushmonstats.log 2> /home/monusr/.err;/bin/cat /home/monusr/.err|/usr/bin/ts %F-%H:%M:%.S 1>> /home/monusr/pushmonstats.err;> /home/monusr/.err
This gives the following in my error log:
2014-03-22-19:17:53.823720 rand: unknown option -- '-l'
Maybe this is not a very elegant way to do it, but it works. I wonder if there is a more elegant approach to it.