When doing lspci, usually we can see a driver in use:


Kernel driver in use: xhci_hcd

If there is no 'driver in use', does it mean really no driver or it may a driver in use but not external module ( kernel built-in module )


Kernel built-in modules will also be reported by "kernel driver in use". For example, my system reports a skl_uncore driver in lspci, and there is no corresponding module in lsmod, so it is a driver that is built into the kernel.

On PCI bridge devices, some of them might not need a driver as they are covered by the generic PCI(e) bridge device support in the kernel.

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