How is it possible I am not able to read the AS file below?

note that I have logged out and in back again since my addition to group nkaramol

akaramol@Andromeda:~/alex$ ls -al
total 16
drwxr-xr-x  3 akaramol akaramol 4096 Νοε   3 21:20 .
drwxr-xr-x 21 akaramol akaramol 4096 Δεκ  29 13:25 ..
----r-----  1 akaramol nkaramol   12 Νοε   3 21:20 AS
dr-x------  3 akaramol akaramol 4096 Δεκ  21 19:15 nick
akaramol@Andromeda:~/alex$ groups akaramol 
akaramol : akaramol nkaramol
akaramol@Andromeda:~/alex$ whoami 
akaramol@Andromeda:~/alex$ cat AS 
cat: AS: Permission denied

1 Answer 1


You’re the owner of the file, and the owner doesn’t have any permissions on the file. Permissions aren’t cumulative: the most specific permissions apply, and only those permissions. Group permissions apply to group members who aren’t the file owner.

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