The page you're looking for is located freedesktop.org here.
By default sysinit.target is after the filesystems and swap are mounted and the basic system features are up, but before the various background services start.
Multi-user.target is after the services are running and the login prompts are enabled.
Graphical.target essentially means a display manager is running.
It's not GRUB recovery mode that's different but systemd's recovery mode (which can be triggered with kernel options from GRUB). Systemd's recovery is rescue.service/rescue.target which comes explicitly after sysinit.target so everything before that is already running and everything wanted by sysinit has already been kicked off by the time it runs.