Yes, you can fairly easily make a copy of a file structure while avoiding copying one or several of the subdirectories, but you would not do it with
rsync, you can exclude files and/or directories using an exclusion pattern. In your case, it looks like you'd want to use
rsync -av --exclude='Photos/Dogs/' /path/from/ path/to
This would make
path/to an exact copy of
/path/from while avoiding any directory called
Dogs at any path matching
Photos/Dogs. If you remove the trailing
/ on the source directory, you'll instead get
path/to/from as an exact copy of the source folder.
The exclude pattern used would make
rsync ignore any subdirectory called
Dogs located in a directory called
Photos, for example
--exclude=Dogs/ would exclude any subdirectory called
Dogs regardless of what its parent directory is called, and using
--exclude=Dogs would exclude anything (regardless of file type) that is called
Dogs. To match only a
Photos/Dogs directory directly under
See the section called "INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERN RULES" in the
rsync manual on your system.
--archive) option will make sure timestamps, permissions etc. are also copied, and also enable recursive copying. The
--verbose) option enables verbose operation.
--hard-links) if you want to preserve hard linking between names (again, see the