I am experiencing extremely slow userspace load time compared to the kernel loading time, as it can be seen in this systemd-analyze:

jnavarro@almanzora:~$ systemd-analyze 
Startup finished in 14.134s (kernel) + 1min 30.675s (userspace) = 1min 44.809s 
graphical.target reached after 12.124s in userspace

When I also asks the systemd-analyze blame I do not see any "good candidate":

jnavarro@almanzora:~$ systemd-analyze blame
          7.387s NetworkManager-wait-online.service
          6.863s plymouth-quit-wait.service
          1.996s docker.service
          1.966s exim4.service
          1.895s systemd-cryptsetup@luks\foo\bar\zaz\.service
          1.256s fwupd.service
          1.061s upower.service
          1.008s alsa-restore.service
           978ms dev-mapper-almanzora\foo\bar\zaz.device
           756ms udisks2.service

Any idea where I can find what is slowing down my boot time? Seems like systemd cannot help me anymore.


systemd-analyze critical-chain output:

jnavarro@almanzora:~$ systemd-analyze critical-chain
The time after the unit is active or started is printed after the "@" character.
The time the unit takes to start is printed after the "+" character.

graphical.target @12.124s
└─multi-user.target @12.124s
  └─docker.service @10.127s +1.996s
    └─network-online.target @10.125s
      └─NetworkManager-wait-online.service @2.737s +7.387s
        └─NetworkManager.service @2.416s +319ms
          └─dbus.service @2.413s
            └─basic.target @2.392s
              └─sockets.target @2.392s
                └─docker.socket @2.390s +1ms
                  └─sysinit.target @2.387s
                    └─sys-fs-fuse-connections.mount @22.662s +9ms
                      └─systemd-modules-load.service @548ms +95ms
                        └─systemd-journald.socket @531ms
                          └─-.mount @526ms
                            └─systemd-journald.socket @531ms
  • Try with comand systemd-analyze critical-chain and post its output
    – mattia.b89
    Nov 11, 2019 at 11:38
  • please post it (just click on edit) in your OP, not here
    – mattia.b89
    Nov 11, 2019 at 12:20
  • See #3 in this: askubuntu.com/questions/615006/… But if other services need network it may delay them.
    – oldfred
    Nov 11, 2019 at 15:10

1 Answer 1


If systemd-analyze blame does not identify the delaying application/service this may mean that something else other than systemd is causing the delay.

  • This could be caused by a device... Try to remove all unplug-gable devices (usb etc.) and reboot, a firmware/driver could cause the delay

  • You could login as tty2 after boot (ctrl+alt+f2) to avoid loading the desktop and its applications, then from there use ps to see what's running and what took time to execute.

ps -eo pid,lstart,cmd will list started tasks with the time/date they were started and with ps -aux you could check the used cpu time per process.

  • Also a defective hardware (like hard drive) may cause delay as well, you can check with a live cd, or by booting a different kernel version, or a different distribution then check if it's impacted as well
  • I am afraid nothing relevant can be seen in any of the ps command invocations. Boot time is however improved when I "simply boot the laptop" without having it connected to its docking station, so it might be the cause. Is there any clear way of knowing which usb device is taking so long to boot? The laptop is a Thinkpad and the docking station is an "official" usb3 one and it does not have any slow device attached to itself.
    – Navarro
    Nov 12, 2019 at 8:56
  • @Navarro here is some details about kernel modules (drivers)... wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Kernel_module ... you may try to boot device by device, or unload/load related kernel modules manually and check if any one is requiring more time...
    – intika
    Nov 12, 2019 at 11:35
  • But that would speed up the kernel boot time, which is quite low already compared to the userspace loading time. In fact, the kernel takes only ~14s while the userspace took around ~1m30s. There is no way of checking what composes that "userland"?
    – Navarro
    Nov 13, 2019 at 8:03

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