In the USB standards, there is a well-defined way to get Vendor ID and Product ID numbers from any USB device.
lsusb just looks them up in a big table and displays the human-readable texts associated with those entries. The table is typically located at
fprint has a much more complicated task: since there doesn't seem to be standard USB protocols for fingerprint readers, it must know exactly what model-specific messages to send to the reader and how to interpret the answers it gets. So it only looks for devices it knows how to talk to.
Unfortunately, it looks like the Goodix fingerprint device is not at all related to devices currently supported by
fprint, and uses a different protocol. But looks like Antonio Ospite is in the process of analyzing the protocol of at least some Goodix fingerprint reader(s). You might also check this Github page and the links mentioned on it for similar reverse-engineering efforts.
If you're at all familiar with programming, you might try compiling Antonio's test program from the GitLab page linked above, and seeing if it works with your fingerprint reader. You could also contact the developer of that program and offer your help - at the very least, you could test Antonio's new versions with your hardware and capture USB traffic for comparative analysis. Perhaps by working together with Antonio (and maybe others that may have done the same) you might figure out the protocol so that
fprint support can then be implemented.