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I am looking for a Linux distro that is accessible to someone who is totally blind. I am aware of Vinux and Sonar GNU, but the former is dormant and the latter is discontinued. What is out there that both is current and also not likely to go away? This search is also satisfied by a mainstream distro like Debian or Ubuntu plus this or that application (like Orca and Lynx); just name which distro, and which app.

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As noted in the question, there have been several Linux distributions aimed at blind and visually impaired users, many of which were neglected for a long time or even abandoned.

In early 2017, Vinux announced plans to merge with Sonar, using Fedora as a basis. That was the last thing I heard about this.

TalkingArch is or was "a respin of the Arch Linux live iso modified to include speech and braille output for blind and visually impaired users". The latest version dates from 2017 and the Arch wiki points out that "TalkingArch project is dead since 2017". It was succeeded by Tarch (see below).

Speakup, which is or was a set of tools for several Linux distributions, has not seen any updates for a number of years.

Oralux was based on Knoppix and included BRLTTY, Emacspeak, Yasr, Speakup and speech synthesiser for several languages. It was last updated in 2006 or 2007.

Some alternatives that are still being maintained are:

  • Luwrain, which describes itself as "A platform for the creation of apps for the blind and partially-sighted". It has ISOs for 32-bit and 64-bit systems and bootable ISO images. Version 1.2.1 was released in May 2019.
  • Tarch, "the new talking arch livecd project" succeeded Talking Arch. Its latest version is 2019.06.22, released in June 2019.
  • There is also ADRIANE, "Audio Desktop Reference Implementation and Networking Environment", available on Knopper.net, the same website where you can find Knoppix.

Using a distribution that was specifically developed with blind users in mind is not the only option. The decisive aspect is the desktop environment and the availability of packages that blind users need. The Gnome desktop was traditionally the desktop of choice for anybody with accessibility needs. Gnome 3 was a setback with regard to accessibility, which made Mate (a continuation of Gnome 2) the better choice for many years. However, I doubt that this is still the case. For example, I can't find any dedicated accessibility page on the MATE website, whereas GNOME at least has an Accessibility Team.

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Have a look/listen/touch at http://www.knopper.net/knoppix-adriane/index-en.html .

It is included in KNOPPIX. The main developers wife is blind, so you can be pretty sure it is tried and tested.

Braille-Support is included.

Personally, as a person that can see, I have abused KNOPPIX to install my first Debian-System, as the Debian-Installer at that time was hard to use (for me).

It was really helpful as a rescue-system time and again.

And it's a good distro to borrow dotfiles from, IMO.

Update:
Somewhat related: a braille keyboard for smartphones.

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    +1. I have also used Knoppix and had some tests with Adriane (but I am not blind). My mother was (almost) blind during her last years, and I made a talking clock to her running automatically in an old laptop. – sudodus Sep 21 '19 at 19:07
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I don't know if there is a dedicated distribution for accessibility. But Debian does offer support for accessibility. See, for example. the Debian Wiki accessibility page and the Debian Project page on Debian-Accessibility.

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    And Debian’s current project leader is blind. – Stephen Kitt Sep 17 '19 at 7:32
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the Slint Linux distribution that I maintain is accessible with a Braille device as well as speech, during installation and usage.

Slint Linux is currently based on Slackware version 14.2, includes up to date accessibility software for the console and the desktops, including Mate 1.22 which is fully accessible.

To know more:

https://slint.fr/wiki/start?id=en/start

http://slackware.uk/slint/x86_64/slint-testing/README.installation

http://slackware.uk/slint/x86_64/slint-14.2.1/doc/Accessibility/Accessibility

Mailing list (registration mandatory):

https://slint.fr/mailman/listinfo/slint_slint.fr

  • What a surprise! I thought I knew about many Linux distributions for blind users, but this one had somehow escaped my attention. – IkWeetHetOokNiet Oct 30 '19 at 18:50
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One thing I'll say that people should bare in mind, the OS's may get newer, but it's all in development as well.

Orca for example, from my understanding doesn't get a lot of frequent updates. This therefore doesn't allow for being able to be 100 percent productive as a Linux user, same as speakup.

It's sad that the less open source products have far more updated screen readers which can handle the mass of changes that are made to apps.

With Linux, at least from my latest findings, due to the lack of updating, users have to either do without, or literally modify the code themselves to get the result they are looking for.

What needs to happen is that the blind and visual impairment community at large, in order to get things more updated accessibility wise, need to speak out to these other Linux distributions developers. If we do that, and let them know hey, we need either them, or the orca development team to really be up to date more, that would help.

Now having said that, I've said for years with any software whether it be on Linux or any other platform, if software is not updated to reflect the new changes, or even the new kernels. Until that happens, that's why it's so hard to find fully accessible Linux distros especially when for one, the development team for orca for example is small. They are nowhere near as teamed as say NVIDIA for windows, or Voiceover for mac, or for a better windows comparison, Narrator.

However, this is not to deter anyone from using Linux, but a suggestion that we need to be a bit more alert and vocalize our feelings about these things.

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