What are the differences of this? I am so confused.

1) If kernel.pid_max is the maximum number of PID that kernel can assign, then why is there a kernel.threads-max if there is already a kernel.pid_max in place? (considering threads-max is higher than pid_max)

2) Same thing with ulimit -u, i think it usually has a higher value set than kernel.pid_max. Why is it still needed?

3) Is is true that output of ps -eLf | wc -l should not be higher than the value of kernel.pid_max? What do specifically -eLf displays?

Sorry if i got too many questions. I would just like to understand it..

  • 2) ulimit -u applies to a specific user, pid_max and threads-max are for the whole system. 3) man ps to find out about the -e, -L, -f options to ps and try it out: note particularly the difference between ps -ef and ps -eLf. I'm almost certain that the answer to the first question in 3) is "No". For 1), read the documentation in the kernel tree, consult books on the kernel and ultimately, consult the code. – NickD 2 days ago

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