Usually a Windows/Linux operating system uses afaik max 2 rings

But how many rings does OpenBSD use?

  • That was a CPU concept, and OS is a wrapper function, am I wrong? – daisy Nov 5 '12 at 8:57
  • afaik for example: OpenVMS used 4 rings. and imho the more rings are used the more secure the OS could be, -> KISS principle. – gasko peter Nov 5 '12 at 11:27
  • STOP used to have 3 rings, but I think the newest version was reduced to 2 for the sake of speed :( – Marcin Nov 5 '12 at 14:48
  • 3
    More rings doesn't particularly translate to more security. It's not how many rings you have, it's how you use them. – Gilles 'SO- stop being evil' Nov 5 '12 at 22:36
  • 5
    One Ring for the Elvis editor and Plone, // One for user processes doomed to die, // Three for the kernel in its dark zone // In OpenBSD where the Blowfish lie. [No, I don't know whether OpenBSD actually uses more than two rings.] – Gilles 'SO- stop being evil' Nov 5 '12 at 23:12

All BSD systems have 2 protection rings, and yes, it depends on the CPU architecture. By now, OpenBSD uses ring0 for kernel and ring3 for userland. That's it.

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