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I have installed Debian Buster with Cinnamon as desktop environment. After login Cinnamon displays a warning on the desktop saying that it runs in software rendering mode which is only recommended for troubleshooting purposes. The .xsession-errors log says the same (see below). I suppose that Cinnamon runs under Wayland.

The system has no dedicated graphics card. The Intel I7 9700K CPU's processor graphics is used instead.

What must be done to let Cinnamon run with hardware acceleration?

System

CPU:       Intel I7 9700K (Coffee Lake)
Mainboard: MSI Z390 A-Pro (latest BIOS)
SSD:       Samsung SSD 970 Evo Plus at the board's M.2 connector
OS:        Debian 10 (Buster)

Kernel

# uname -a
Linux 4.19.0-5-amd64 #1 SMP Debian 4.19.37-5+deb10u2 (2019-08-08) x86_64 GNU/Linux

Graphics drivers/libraries

i965-va-driver/stable,now 2.3.0+dfsg1-1 amd64 [installed,automatic]
intel-media-va-driver/stable,now 18.4.1+dfsg1-1 amd64 [installed,automatic]
libva-drm2/stable,now 2.4.0-1 amd64 [installed,automatic]
libva-x11-2/stable,now 2.4.0-1 amd64 [installed,automatic]
libva2/stable,now 2.4.0-1 amd64 [installed,automatic]
mesa-va-drivers/stable,now 18.3.6-2 amd64 [installed,automatic]
va-driver-all/stable,now 2.4.0-1 amd64 [installed,automatic]

Excerpt from .xsession-errors

Cinnamon warning: Software rendering detected: llvmpipe (LLVM 7.0, 256 bits)
Cjs-Message: 06:07:12.080: JS LOG: About to start Cinnamon
Cjs-Message: 06:07:12.080: JS LOG: ACTIVATING SOFTWARE RENDERING
Cjs-Message: 06:07:12.080: JS LOG: [LookingGlass/error] Cinnamon Software Rendering mode enabled
** Message: 06:07:12.092: nemo-desktop: session is not cinnamon (checked XDG_SESSION_DESKTOP,DESKTOP_SESSION environment variables.) Applying default behavior
Cjs-Message: 06:07:12.125: JS LOG: [LookingGlass/info] Cinnamon.AppSystem.get_default() started in 44 ms
Cjs-Message: 06:07:12.128: JS LOG: [LookingGlass/info] loading default theme
Cinnamon warning: Log level 128: posix_spawn avoided (fd close requested)
Cjs-Message: 06:07:12.187: JS LOG: [LookingGlass/info] PlacesManager: Updating devices
St-Message: 06:07:12.188: cogl npot texture sizes SUPPORTED
Cjs-Message: 06:07:12.193: JS LOG: [LookingGlass/info] loaded at Thu Aug 29 2019 06:07:12 GMT+0000 (UTC)
Cjs-Message: 06:07:12.193: JS LOG: Cinnamon started at Thu Aug 29 2019 06:07:12 GMT+0000 (UTC)
Cjs-Message: 06:07:12.210: JS LOG: [LookingGlass/info] ExtensionSystem started in 2 ms
Cjs-Message: 06:07:12.210: JS LOG: [LookingGlass/info] DeskletManager started in 0 ms
Cjs-Message: 06:07:12.210: JS LOG: [LookingGlass/info] SearchProviderManager started in 0 ms
openGL version 3.3 detected (GL3 Cogl Driver)
MetaSyncRing disabled: couldn't find required GL extensions, or the minimum safe openGL version was not met
Cjs-Message: 06:07:12.255: JS LOG: [LookingGlass/info] Loaded applet show-desktop@cinnamon.org in 16 ms
Cjs-Message: 06:07:12.259: JS LOG: [LookingGlass/info] Loaded applet removable-drives@cinnamon.org in 4 ms
Cjs-Message: 06:07:12.278: JS LOG: [LookingGlass/info] Loaded applet keyboard@cinnamon.org in 16 ms
Cjs-Message: 06:07:12.282: JS LOG: [LookingGlass/info] Role locked: notifications
Cjs-Message: 06:07:12.291: JS LOG: [LookingGlass/info] Loaded applet notifications@cinnamon.org in 12 ms
Cjs-Message: 06:07:12.304: JS LOG: [LookingGlass/info] Loaded applet user@cinnamon.org in 14 ms
Cjs-Message: 06:07:12.321: JS LOG: [LookingGlass/info] Loaded applet calendar@cinnamon.org in 16 ms
Cjs-Message: 06:07:12.339: JS LOG: [LookingGlass/info] Role locked: panellauncher
Cjs-Message: 06:07:12.341: JS LOG: [LookingGlass/info] Loaded applet panel-launchers@cinnamon.org in 20 ms
Cjs-Message: 06:07:12.352: JS LOG: [LookingGlass/info] Loaded applet power@cinnamon.org in 12 ms
Cjs-Message: 06:07:12.360: JS LOG: [LookingGlass/info] Loaded applet window-list@cinnamon.org in 8 ms
Cjs-Message: 06:07:12.407: JS LOG: [LookingGlass/info] Loaded applet sound@cinnamon.org in 46 ms
Cjs-Message: 06:07:12.437: JS LOG: [LookingGlass/info] Loaded applet network@cinnamon.org in 30 ms
Cjs-Message: 06:07:12.682: JS LOG: [LookingGlass/info] Loaded applet menu@cinnamon.org in 246 ms
Cjs-Message: 06:07:12.683: JS LOG: [LookingGlass/info] AppletManager started in 490 ms
Cjs-Message: 06:07:12.683: JS LOG: [LookingGlass/info] AppletManager started in 490 ms
Cjs-Message: 06:07:12.717: JS LOG: [LookingGlass/info] Cinnamon took 636 ms to start

Output of lsmod

Module                  Size  Used by
snd_hda_codec_hdmi     57344  0
snd_hda_codec_realtek   122880  1
snd_hda_codec_generic    86016  1 snd_hda_codec_realtek
fuse                  122880  3
intel_rapl             24576  0
x86_pkg_temp_thermal    16384  0
i915                 1728512  0
intel_powerclamp       16384  0
coretemp               16384  0
kvm_intel             245760  0
drm_kms_helper        200704  1 i915
kvm                   724992  1 kvm_intel
drm                   483328  2 drm_kms_helper,i915
i2c_algo_bit           16384  1 i915
irqbypass              16384  1 kvm
snd_hda_intel          45056  2
snd_hda_codec         151552  4 snd_hda_codec_generic,snd_hda_codec_hdmi,snd_hda_intel,snd_hda_codec_realtek
crct10dif_pclmul       16384  0
crc32_pclmul           16384  0
snd_hda_core           94208  5 snd_hda_codec_generic,snd_hda_codec_hdmi,snd_hda_intel,snd_hda_codec,snd_hda_codec_realtek
ghash_clmulni_intel    16384  0
snd_hwdep              16384  1 snd_hda_codec
intel_cstate           16384  0
snd_pcm               114688  4 snd_hda_codec_hdmi,snd_hda_intel,snd_hda_codec,snd_hda_core
snd_timer              36864  1 snd_pcm
intel_uncore          135168  0
snd                    94208  12 snd_hda_codec_generic,snd_hda_codec_hdmi,snd_hwdep,snd_hda_intel,snd_hda_codec,snd_hda_codec_realtek,snd_timer,snd_pcm
mei_me                 45056  0
iTCO_wdt               16384  0
sg                     36864  0
wmi_bmof               16384  0
intel_rapl_perf        16384  0
mei                   118784  1 mei_me
soundcore              16384  1 snd
pcspkr                 16384  0
iTCO_vendor_support    16384  1 iTCO_wdt
intel_pch_thermal      16384  0
acpi_pad               24576  0
evdev                  28672  9
acpi_tad               16384  0
pcc_cpufreq            16384  0
parport_pc             32768  1
ppdev                  20480  0
lp                     20480  0
parport                57344  3 parport_pc,lp,ppdev
ip_tables              28672  0
x_tables               45056  1 ip_tables
autofs4                49152  2
ext4                  733184  3
crc16                  16384  1 ext4
mbcache                16384  1 ext4
jbd2                  122880  1 ext4
crc32c_generic         16384  0
fscrypto               32768  1 ext4
ecb                    16384  0
hid_generic            16384  0
usbhid                 57344  0
hid                   135168  2 usbhid,hid_generic
sd_mod                 61440  4
crc32c_intel           24576  5
mxm_wmi                16384  0
xhci_pci               16384  0
nvme                   36864  1
e1000e                282624  0
ahci                   40960  3
xhci_hcd              266240  1 xhci_pci
libahci                40960  1 ahci
libata                270336  2 libahci,ahci
aesni_intel           200704  0
usbcore               290816  3 xhci_hcd,usbhid,xhci_pci
scsi_mod              245760  3 sd_mod,libata,sg
aes_x86_64             20480  1 aesni_intel
crypto_simd            16384  1 aesni_intel
cryptd                 28672  3 crypto_simd,ghash_clmulni_intel,aesni_intel
nvme_core              81920  3 nvme
glue_helper            16384  1 aesni_intel
i2c_i801               28672  0
usb_common             16384  1 usbcore
thermal                20480  0
fan                    16384  0
wmi                    28672  2 wmi_bmof,mxm_wmi
video                  45056  1 i915
button                 16384  0

Ref.: https://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/products/processors/core/i7-processors/i7-9700k.html

0

After trying another motherboard, I finally could fix the problem.

It seems that the only required change is to update the default Linux Kernel of Debian Buster (4.19.x) to the latest kernel from Debian Buster backports (5.3.x).

After that update the software rendering warning message disappeared witout further action.

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