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Trying to copy an 8GB, encrypted image of one of my flash drives (gotten from "dd" command) onto a flash drive, but flash is FAT formatted. So I'll need to format a new flash to transfer it over to.

Not sure if I should format to ext4 or NTFS. I've read about the pros and cons of each, but if NTFS can be used on both windows and Linux, plus some other benefits, like handling longer file names, is it worth using ext4?

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The question you are making is related to file systems:

Is there any benefit to using ext4 instead of NTFS?

The correct answer to that question is long, complex, and usually ends up including several personal opinions. My personal opinion is that ext4 is more useful than NTFS for use in Linux. But for Windows use, probably, NTFS is a better fit. But again, that's just my opinion.

What I recommend you is to decouple the issue of file size from the file system.

How?

Use FAT (aka vFAT) as it could be read (and correctly written) in all important OSes, and,

Build a compressed archive of all the files to transfer divided into volumes smaller than 2GiB.

To store one or many files you can build a tar file with all the permissions, ACLs and time tags you may need from Linux, MacOS and/or Windows (10).

Then, to compress the tar file (or one file as in your use case) you may use 7z:

On the command line (Usually Linux):

7z a -v2g -t7z -m0=lzma -mx=9 -mfb=64 -md=32m -ms=off archive.7z files

On Windows

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