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I found an interesting article about how to hide specific processes on linux from process monitoring tools like ps, top, lsof, ...

Person states that there are several possible ways to hide processes:

  1. Using a proper framework: there are a bunch of very good frameworks, like SELinux and Grsecurity that do, among other things, exactly this. In a production system, I would absolutely consider these, although today I want to get my hands dirty and have fun creating something from scratch.
  2. Modify top/ps/... binaries: I could grab the source code of each of these tools, implement my own "hiding linux processes" logic, recompile, and replace the binaries. Very inefficient and time consuming.
  3. Modify libc: I could modify the readdir() function inside libc and input the code to exclude the access to some /proc files. But recompiling libc is a burden, not to mention the libc code tends to be very hard to understand.
  4. Modify the system calls in the kernel: This is the most advanced, and it would work by intercepting and modifying the getdents() system call directly in the kernel with a custom module. It’s definitely tempting, but I won’t follow this route today because I’m already very familiar with how the system call interception works in sysdig, so I want to do something new.

I decided to go for an intermediate solution, one that is interesting and simple enough to implement in an hour or so: it’s a variant of "modifying libc" based on a tricky feature offered by the Linux dynamic linker (the component that takes care of loading the various libraries needed by a program at runtime), called preloading.

With preloading, Linux is kind enough to give us the option to load a custom shared library before the other normal system libraries are loaded. This means that, if the custom library exports a function with the same signature of one found in a system library, we are literally able to override it with the custom code in our library, and all the processes will automatically pick our custom one!

This sounds like a solution to my problem, because I could write a very simple custom library that overrides libc's readdir(), and write the logic to hide the process! The logic would be fairly straightforward too: every time I see that the /proc/PID directory (where PID is the PID of the process having the name "evil_script") is being read, I just block that access in a clean way, thus hiding the entire directory! I went ahead and implemented these thoughts in code. You can get the sources at https://github.com/gianlucaborello/libprocesshider/blob/master/processhider.c (it’s actually less than 100 lines of code including comments, so go read it!). Once the code is written, let’s compile it as a shared library, and install it in the system path.

Source code: processhider.c

So the steps are:

  1. make => gcc -Wall -fPIC -shared -o libprocesshider.so processhider.c -ldl
  2. mv libprocesshider.so /usr/local/lib/ (as root)
  3. echo /usr/local/lib/libprocesshider.so >> /etc/ld.so.preload

Now back to my question/problem: Here it is described for Linux systems. I tested it on my Ubuntu 18.04 (64 bit) machine and everything worked fine - process was now hidden from ps. Additionally I tested it on my another machine where FreeBSD 11.0 (64 bit) is installed.

First I had to remove following part of the code:

DECLARE_READDIR(dirent64, readdir64);

because I got an error (dirent64 wasn't defined in dirent.h - I just used locate dirent.h and compared the code to some internet sources):

processhider.c: In function 'readdir64':
processhider.c:87:37: error: dereferencing pointer to incomplete type 'struct dirent64'
                 get_process_name(dir->d_name, process_name) &&          \
                                     ^
processhider.c:97:1: note: in expansion of macro 'DECLARE_READDIR'
 DECLARE_READDIR(dirent64, readdir64);
 ^
*** Error code 1

After removing DECLARE_READDIR(dirent64, readdir64); I got another error complaining about -ldl flag:

/usr/local/bin/gcc5 -Wall -fPIC -shared -o libprocesshider.so processhider.c -ldl
/usr/local/bin/ld: cannot find -ldl
collect2: error: ld returned 1 exit status
*** Error code 1

Stop.

I found a solution where one could replace -ldl with -L/usr/local/lib where my libdl.so file is located (meaning of "collect2: error: ld returned 1 exit status" error).

Then I was able to compile the code. I placed the library into /usr/local/lib/ and added it to /etc/ld.so.preload.

However when I called my script evil_script.py (Code was different (no more UDP packets spam), but I still have while true loop and time.sleep(60) so the process should be there) it still appeared in the process list (ps auxww). Maybe /etc/ld.so.preload is not working? Can be there some problem with ld.so shared library? Is there any way how I can test what goes wrong at which point?

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    The ps and top on *BSD don't work by reading files and dirs off /proc, but by using the sysctl system call and by directly reading the kernel memory via /dev/mem. So overriding the readdir, etc cannot have any effect on them. In general, this whole endeavor is kind of pointless -- there are so many ways to bypass it, it isn't even funny. – mosvy Aug 8 '19 at 21:47
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    You can't, unless you hack into kernel(sysdig needs a non-upstream kernel module to work). But obviously you can fake the process list when using a userspace tool by simply replace the binary with a custom version, or replace the library with customized function. Notice the actual path to achive this might be seccomp, ptrace. – 炸鱼薯条德里克 Aug 9 '19 at 3:19
  • that was my idea too - just to replace the binary with my own one. seems to be way simpler. – Awaaaaarghhh Aug 9 '19 at 18:35
  • @mosvy, do you know any other ways to bypass it? Are those ways different as described in my question? If yes, then it would be probably way better if I would ask a new question. – Awaaaaarghhh Aug 9 '19 at 18:48
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Method 2 and 3 (modifying ps, top, libraries), is prone to walk around breach. E.g. an attacker can just use there own ps.

A better way would be to block these tools from accessing info on processes of other users. Then running the processes to be hidden as a different user.

For the 1st part, edit /etc/fstab, to include

#protect /proc
proc /proc proc defaults,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,hidepid=2,gid=admin 0 0
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