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I am newbie in Linux and I am trying to understand the basics of the Linux OS structure.

So: Are the 'linux-kernel-modules' listed in the output from 'lsmod' and 'GNU C Library' (about 2000 subroutines) one and the same thing/s?

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No, Linux kernel modules and the GNU C Library are not the same, and I don't know where you got that idea.

The kernel modules are parts of the Linux kernel that can be loaded on demand. Depending on the configuration there can be thousands of modules, and a typical installation will only use a few hundred, but it depends on the hardware and other things which of those modules are used.

The GNU C Library on the other hand is a collection of C function for user programs and is not used in the kernel.

  • a human-user is turning on a linux-pc. after the loading of the os into the ram the human-user do not start (run) any app from the 'user-space'. at this timepoint the 'kernel-modules' are loaded into the ram but do the 2000 gnu c library subroutines are also loaded into the ram or they will be loaded only if the human-user starts certain app/s? – ccsann Jun 16 at 20:28
  • nope. neither. only the kernel modules actually used will be loaded into the "ram" and, even if the human starts other apps besides init, only the actual code from glibc which is actually used will be "loaded into ram", because linux is using virtual memory and demand paging. Really, this stuff is so since the '80s -- I don't know where you guys get this obscene idea of huge lib being loaded whole in the "ram". – Uncle Billy Jun 16 at 21:03
  • so, the glibc (GNU C Library) and the output from 'apt list --installed' are one and same. I mean the output from 'apt list --installed' shows the list of glibc's 2000 subroutines which subroutines actually are also ... libraries. may be something like sublibraries? – ccsann Jul 2 at 15:09

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