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What's the difference between the following files in CentOS 7?

  • /etc/locale.conf
  • /etc/environment
  • ~/.bashrc
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  • any bashrc file is for bash shell. The other two files are shell-independent. An app started at boot could check environment and locale.conf to see what environment variables are set, which locale is used by the system, in which locale to write logs, etc – Sergiy Kolodyazhnyy Jun 3 '19 at 2:06
  • @SergiyKolodyazhnyy but why two file? why not use environment only? why not just use locale.conf only? what's the exactly difference between this two file? – Willis Jun 3 '19 at 2:13
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    /etc/locale.conf is used to set language and coutry settings, such as the currency symbol ..... /etc/environment sets systemwide settings, such as the PATH variable, default editor, etc – jsotola Jun 3 '19 at 4:20
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For any program that simply needs to read the environment variable settings, /etc/locale.conf and /etc/environment are basically the same; in a very simplified embedded system, you could omit /etc/locale.conf and place any required locale variables to /etc/environment instead.

The difference is mainly in how to deal with updating the files.

For /etc/locale.conf, the set of variables expected to be defined in the file is finite and their syntax is well-defined. This allows easier modification by programs. For example, a "language/locale settings" GUI application can easily read the existing settings, present them to the user, and then re-write the entire file if the user makes new choices.

Recovery from syntax errors is simple too: if the settings application detects a syntax error in the file, it can just present the settings it managed to read, let the user either accept the current configuration or make changes, and then re-write the file based on some template built into the application, and the error is transparently fixed.

For /etc/environment, the set of environment variables that can be defined there is unlimited, so any programmatic manipulations of the file must be done much more carefully.

Also, /etc/environment and /etc/locale.conf define system-wide defaults, while ~/.bashrc is specific to the user: using ~/.bashrc, the user can override the system defaults for their own session(s) only, if desired.

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  • Thank you, I found that /etc/locale.conf only appear in CentOS7, and this file can be set by one of systemd component - localectl while /etc/environment should be edit by yourself. In CentOS6 or earlier version, there is a /etc/sysconfig/i18n, but this file was removed in CentOS7, so is that /etc/locale.conf is the replacement of /etc/sysconfig/i18n ? – Willis Jun 3 '19 at 6:56
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    Yes. /etc/sysconfig/i18n (and in fact the entire /etc/sysconfig directory) was a classic RedHat-style solution, while /etc/locale.conf might become the new standard across most Linux distributions. Likewise, RedHat/CentOS/Fedora and related distributions used to include tools (both command line and GUI) to manipulate /etc/sysconfig/i18n, while /etc/environment was left to the system administrator to edit manually. – telcoM Jun 3 '19 at 7:45

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