Is there a way to install a deb package "D" on a remote machine "M" without transferring "D" to "M"? If I move "D" to "M", the owner of the machine "M" can copy my deb package (before I finish installation) which is something that I don't want. I have developed the package "D" myself, so I don't want them to have it. And we do not have time/resources to add a license or key to our package.
I'm afraid I have bad news for you.
dpkg-repack is a standard bit of software that uses the packaging info files (which have to remain on the system in order to make sure upgrade go properly) to rebuild the .deb package.
If you install D on remote machine M, whoever has root on M can reconstruct D any time they like.
EDIT And even if you somehow prevent them from doing that, a simple
dpkg -L packagename will tell them exactly which files are part of the package, at which point they can just tar those up and be done.