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I have installed Debian from official DVD #1 without standard system utilities and I have a wish to continue offline installation with build-essential set. How to install it offline if C compiler not present in system $PATH and I haven't other Linux device?

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    What happens if you try to apt install build-essential? May 13 '19 at 12:15
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There is finding a public pc like library or something and download the package from the debian site and then try to find all dependencies:

http://deb.debian.org/debian/pool/main/b/build-essential/build-essential_12.3.tar.gz

Check out:

https://packages.debian.org/source/stretch/build-essential

If you have a system with internet and Debian or Ubuntu installed or in a VM(VirtualBox runs on Windows) then on that machine get the packeges with dependencies:

# aptitude clean
# aptitude --download-only install <your_package_here>
# cp /var/cache/apt/archives/*.deb <your_directory_here>

https://stackoverflow.com/questions/13756800/how-to-download-all-dependencies-and-packages-to-directory/39968534

OR

You can use apt-rdepends to build the complete set of dependencies (recursively), including the main package, then download that:

apt-get download $(apt-rdepends "${package}" | grep -v ^\ )

(replacing "${package}" of course).

How to download a package and its dependencies with aptitude?

Then you use a USB memory stick and copy the files to the offline server:

cp -R /mnt/USBstick/* /root/packeges && cd /root/packages

Then you have a few ways to install here is one:

dpkg -i <deb file>

it'll fail saying it needs dependencies. After that when you do an apt-get update it'll say at the end something like "dependencies are ready to install" I think it then advises to use

apt-get install -f

Once that's done, I use

dpkg -i

again.

EDIT: Here are the depends for build-essential:

[21:33:49][root] /home/USER [HOST]
~↓↓$↓↓ apt-cache depends build-essential
build-essential
 |Depends: libc6-dev
  Depends: <libc-dev>
    libc6-dev
  Depends: gcc
  Depends: g++
  Depends: make
    make-guile
  Depends: dpkg-dev
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ivan@darkstar:~$ cat /usr/share/doc/build-essential/list 
                   List of Build-Essential packages
                    as of 2017-09-17, Debian sid

This file lists the non-essential packages that are build-essential.
The list is not closed under the "depends on" relation, so one will
usually need to install more packages than given here.

This list attempts to document the set of build-essential packages as
well as possible.  However, it is not authoritative (actually, there
is no authoritative list at all); the definition of the
"build-essential" class of packages given in Debian Policy Manual
(version >= 3.6.1.1), section 4 "Source packages" (more precisely
subsection 4.2 "Package relationships") is the definitive answer.
Here's the definition (as of Policy 3.6.1.1):

    It is not necessary to explicitly specify build-time relationships
    on a minimal set of packages that are always needed to compile,
    link and put in a Debian package a standard "Hello World!" program
    written in C or C++.  The required packages are called
    _build-essential_, and an informational list can be found in
    `/usr/share/doc/build-essential/list' (which is contained in the
    `build-essential' package).

The list is given below in a format which is readable by both humans and
programs.  The format is described at the end of this file.

BEGIN LIST OF PACKAGES
libc6-dev [!alpha !ia64 !hurd-i386] | libc0.3-dev [hurd-i386] | libc6.1-dev [alpha ia64] | libc-dev
  Provides the ISO C standard library
  Indirectly depended on by g++, but we'll ignore
  it since libc6-dev is used for non-C++ programs too.

libc6-dev-sparc64 [sparc]
  Used only on the sparc architecture.

gcc (>= 4:7.2)
g++ (>= 4:7.2)

  NOTE:
  The libstdc++ -dev library is not needed, as g++ depends on it

make
  Also depended on by dpkg-dev, but make does warrant its own
  dependency since debian/rules will need it even if dpkg-dev
  stopped depending on it

dpkg-dev (>= 1.17.11)
  Provides dpkg-genchanges and other scripts.  Versioned, because
  of support for the build-time dependency fields in /debian/control
  and dpkg-architecture support for OS and CPU information.

  NOTE:
  Although this list does not contain them, all `Essential: yes'
  packages are build-essential as well.  A list of such packages
  can be found by executing the following command
     `grep-status -FEssential -sPackage -ni yes'
  when the `grep-dctrl' package is installed and in its default
  configuration.  Such list is installed with this package as
  the file
     `/usr/share/doc/build-essential/essential-packages-list'

hurd-dev [hurd-i386]
  Provides libpthread.so (and other such essential components).

END LIST OF PACKAGES

Here's the format definition:

   - First line is the following, without any leading or trailing
     whitespace:
        BEGIN LIST OF PACKAGES

   - Last line is the following, without any leading or trailing
     whitespace:
        END LIST OF PACKAGES

   - A line with leading whitespace is a comment.

   - Other lines are joined with end-of-line replaced by comma, and
     the result is parsed like the body of the Build-Depends field.
     The list of build-essential packages for a particular
     architecture is constructed from the result list by ignoring all
     the package name - package version pairs which would be ignored
     if we were building for that architecture and then removing the
     architecture specifications.

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