I use Debian 8.7 jessie and I've installed it on vmware workstation. I connected a sound card to Debian virtual machine but it can't be visible in /dev, If it's not there, so where is it?

# lspci -nn |grep -i audio
02:02.0 Multimedia audio controller [0401]: Ensoniq ES1371 / Creative Labs CT2518 [AudioPCI-97] [1274:1371] (rev 02)

# lsmod | grep snd
snd_ens1371            23119  2 
snd_rawmidi            27023  1 snd_ens1371
snd_seq_device         13132  1 snd_rawmidi
snd_ac97_codec        118704  1 snd_ens1371
snd_pcm                88603  2 snd_ac97_codec,snd_ens1371
snd_timer              26868  1 snd_pcm
snd                    69472  10 
soundcore              13031  1 snd
ac97_bus               12510  1 snd_ac97_codec
gameport               13449  1 snd_ens1371

# cat /proc/asound/modules /proc/asound/cards /proc/asound/devices

0 snd_ens1371
0 [AudioPCI       ]: ENS1371 - Ensoniq AudioPCI
                  Ensoniq AudioPCI ENS1371 at 0x2080, irq 16
2: [ 0- 0]: digital audio playback
3: [ 0- 0]: digital audio capture
4: [ 0- 1]: digital audio playback
5: [ 0- 0]: raw midi
6: [ 0]   : control
33:        : timer


  • Please describe how you attached a piece of hardware to a virtual machine. Please do not respond in comments; edit your question to make it clearer and more complete.
    – Scott
    May 5 '19 at 4:47

The sound driver modules and/or the PulseAudio daemon may not have been loaded, if the (virtual?) sound card was not present at the time you installed Debian.

Use lspci or lsusb as appropriate to verify that the sound card is visible on the virtual machine. Then look into /proc/asound for information on sound devices with functional drivers, and dmesg for error messages a failure in sound module autoloading might have generated.

If you have a minimal installation, you might need to run apt-get install pulseaudio to get a full set of sound services installed and running.

According to the output of cat /proc/asound/modules /proc/asound/cards /proc/asound/devices, you should have:

  • /dev/snd/controlC0 for audio mixer control,
  • /dev/snd/pcmC0D0p and /dev/snd/pcmC0D1p for audio output, and
  • /dev/snd/pcmC0D0c for audio input.
  • There should also be /dev/snd/seq and /dev/snd/timer for MIDI and timer interfaces, respectively.

If some or all of these are missing, it might be a problem with udev... but then your assertion that the card works correctly is confusing: if the device nodes are really missing, as far as I know, there should then be no way to deliver sound data to the driver. Are you sure you aren't operating in a chrooted environment, a SSH session to another host, or something else that might be showing you a different view of the /dev directory tree?

  • Hi telcoM, Thanks for your answer. PulseAudio has been installed by default. I don't use minimal installation of Debian. The sound card works correctly. But still, I can't see the sound card in /dev.
    – fedora
    Apr 27 '19 at 7:42
  • Exactly what do you expect to see? The obsolete OSS audio interfaces /dev/dsp* and /dev/audio*? Make sure the snd-pcm-oss is loaded to get the OSS compatibility layer for ALSA. Or the ALSA devices at /dev/snd/*? In that case, please edit your question and add the outputs of lspci -nn |grep -i audio, lsmod | grep snd and cat /proc/asound/modules /proc/asound/cards /proc/asound/devices to the question post.
    – telcoM
    Apr 27 '19 at 9:41
  • Here you go, I edited it.
    – fedora
    Apr 27 '19 at 9:57
  • I've also edited my answer.
    – telcoM
    Apr 27 '19 at 11:40

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