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In dmesg, I saw this log.

blk_update_request: critical target error, dev sdx, sector 123456

I want to know the 'sector' here means a logical sector or physical sector? because I want to know the sector (123456) here is in the valid range or not.

According to the S.M.A.R.T diagnose, I see:

Sector Sizes: 512 bytes logical, 4096 bytes physical Rotation Rate: 7200 rpm

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If S.M.A.R.T diagnostics says:

Sector Sizes: 512 bytes logical, 4096 bytes physical

then it suggests the disk is an Advanced Format 512e disk: it internally uses 4096-byte block (= sector) size, but any data transfers between the disk and the computer still use the common 512-byte block size.

Effectively, the disk is addressable in 512-byte blocks, but performance will be better if the OS arranges the disk operations to take into account the 4096-byte internal block size.

The "sector" in the error message means the sector size used by the OS when communicating with the disk, which is 512 bytes, the logical sector size.

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