I'm new to Linux and I've thought I'll give it a try and so I installed Zorin OS. I' wondering if I installed it correctly in the disk.

Sample screenshot using cfdisk: enter image description here

Is it fine that the Linux file system took all my drive space?

  • Zorin is a good choice for those familiar with Windows before the Metro look and feel. My mother uses it and she likes it. One thing though... Folks used to Internet Explorer have an easier time with Firefox, so Chrome needed to be replaced with Firefox. – user56041 Mar 16 '19 at 11:55

If you told the installer to use the whole disk for Linux, that's exactly what it did. No operating system installer is going to leave unpartitioned free space on the system disk unless you specifically request it to.

If the installer did not ask you whether or not to use the whole disk and did not tell you that any other operating systems on the disk will be overwritten if you use the defaults, in that case I might be inclined to say Zorin's installer sucks, but the actual result looks like a perfectly valid installation of Linux as the only OS on the system.

The partition type IDs tell me that the installation is probably using LVM by default, so although the /dev/sda5 partition is occupying the whole disk, it does not necessarily mean all the disk space is actually used.

You should use the sudo lvs command to view the number and size of any LVM logical volumes within /dev/sda5, and sudo pvs to see if you have any unallocated space left. You could then use this unallocated space to either extend any existing logical volumes, or to create new logical volumes if you wish. Unlike traditional partitions, LVM logical volumes don't need to be physically contiguous: parts of a single LV may even occupy several different disks, and so a LV can be bigger than any single physical disk if required.

I don't see anything that would cause a performance problem. In the comments, you said:

From my understanding, the reason of separating System OS to the other files is to prevent the system slowing down from loading all those other files when booting up.

This is not correct. The main reason for separating system and user files to separate filesystems (whether those are located on partitions or LVs) is to make it easier to completely reinstall the OS without affecting user files. In some cases, it might also be needed for other reasons, like if the system is part of a cluster and the administrator wants to place the user files on a iSCSI or other SAN storage that can be accessed from all the cluster nodes simultaneously: such a set-up requires a special cluster filesystem, and usually cannot be mounted until the OS and the cluster infrastructure services have started up.

The system will not blindly load all the files on the system disk on boot, because a) that would be futile, as a disk may easily have at least an order of magnitude more capacity than the system has RAM, and b) in an overwhelming majority of cases, it would be just a stupid waste of time with no significant benefit.

From the sudo lvs output in the comments I see that your /dev/sda5 is used to create a LVM volume group named zorin-vg and it is currently split into two logical volumes: a swap_1 LV of 976M size, and all the rest seems to be used by the root LV. This is a perfectly valid simple configuration, although personally I would have perhaps preferred splitting /home into a separate LV. But even that is just my personal preference: I would not consider it too important.

Since Zorin OS is apparently developed from Ubuntu 16.04, I guess the filesystem type used on the root LV is most likely ext4. Although it's not the absolute best in performance, it is probably still the most robust and well-tested filesystem type in the Linux ecosystem.

Although 465G is a perfectly respectable size for a single-SSD system, you should keep in mind that Linux is developed to handle server systems which may include filesystems with tens of terabytes in size: for any modern filesystem capable of handling that, 465G is small and easy. Many of the old recommended practices from 10-15 years ago are starting to look increasingly like needless micro-managing. The more you split your disk into separate filesystems, the more often you'll encounter the nuisance of having your free space not be where you need it. That's a complication you don't need when you're in the process of learning a new operating system.

Since you said you're new to Linux, I'd urge you to keep this configuration for now, at least until you're more familiar with Linux and its concepts.

Assuming that the filesystem type on your root LV is ext4, it would be possible to shrink it and use the freed space to create another LV, copy the contents of your /home to the new filesystem and mount it in place of your current /home directory. But since that requires shrinking your current root filesystem (which cannot be unmounted while the OS is running), and the filesystem will probably need to be unmounted for major shrinking, you'd need to do it by booting the system from an external media, probably some Linux Live CD or USB. Once the filesystem has been successfully shrunk, the rest of the steps can be done from within the Zorin OS, and no further reboots should be necessary:

  • shrinking the root LV (which acts as the container for your root filesystem) unless you already did that together with shrinking the filesystem (depends on the tools available on the external boot media)
  • creating a new LV with lvcreate -L <desired size> -n <desired name> zorin-vg
  • initializing (Windows might say "formatting") the new LV with a filesystem, with e.g. mkfs.ext4 /dev/zorin-vg/<desired name>
  • mounting the new LV in a temporary location: mount /dev/zorin-vg/<desired name> /mnt
  • copying the contents of /home to the new filesystem: cp -a /home/* /mnt/
  • unmounting the temporary location: umount /mnt
  • creating an /etc/fstab entry for your new filesystem:

    /dev/zorin-vg/ /home ext4 defaults 0 2

  • moving the existing /home directory aside and creating a new empty directory as a mount point: mv /home /home.old; mkdir /home

  • letting the system mount the new filesystem for you: mount -a
  • and finally, testing that everything still works and deleting the /home.old directory tree.

But as you can see, there are quite a few steps in that process, and if you're new to Linux, I'd recommend you to leave it until you have a stronger understanding of what you'll be doing.

  • Thank you. Zorin did exactly what I wanted, the only OS in the disk, you're right. Contrary to windows, where there is (C:) where the system OS is installed, and there is (D:) where the extra files are stored. From my understanding, the reason of separating System OS to the other files is to prevent the system slowing down from loading all those other files when booting up. To make the long question short: Shouldn't i have a System OS where the Linux OS is installed(100GB) and use the other extra space(300GB) for other files? I mean a separate partition for each. Thank you . – Wrath Sin Mar 16 '19 at 16:15
  • The system does not load all the files on the disk when booting up, because typically system has much more disk space than RAM. Having user data files separate from OS files does help in certain situations, e.g. if/when you choose to completely reinstall your OS for any reason. But as I tried to tell you, the fact that there is just one partition does not mean there is just one filesystem: a partition that is designated for LVM use (which is what partition type ID 8e usually means) can be internally split to several filesystems. Use the sudo lvs command to see if yours is split like that. – telcoM Mar 16 '19 at 19:17
  • I got something like this: LV VG Attr LSize Pool Origin Data% Meta% Move Log Cpy%Sync Convert root zorin-vg -wi-ao---- 464.05g swap_1 zorin-vg -wi-ao---- 976.00m So there is no problem whatsoever on the performance of the system? 'Cause there is internal partition that happened? – Wrath Sin Mar 17 '19 at 1:43

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