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I'd like to have reference on how to get exhaustive REASONs why a host/server might be down in "PORT STATE SERVICE REASON VERSION" (below) of nmap using the --reason option.

--------------------------------------------------
PORT   STATE    SERVICE   REASON      VERSION
17/tcp filtered qotd      no-response
18/tcp filtered msp       no-response
...
--------------------------------------------------

here no-response is one, but there might be others that nmap may return.

I have read

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The full list of reasons may be found in the portreasons.cc file in the nmap source distribution.

The list, at the time of writing, contains the following reasons:

abort
addressmask-reply
admin-prohibited
arp-response
beyond-scope
conn-refused
dest-unreach
echo-reply
host-prohibited
host-unreach
init-ack
ipid-change
localhost-response
nd-response
net-prohibited
net-unreach
no-ipid-change
no-response
no-route
param-problem
perm-denied
port-unreach
proto-response
proto-unreach
reject-route
reset
script-set
source-quench
split-handshake-syn
syn-ack
tcp-response
time-exceeded
timestamp-reply
udp-response
unknown-response
user-set

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