After I run
$ ssh -L 9000:google.com:80 testme@localhost
how can I verify that the port forwarding is established by checking the sockets (internet and unix domain sockets)?
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Once the SSH connection is established, you’ll see a listening socket on port 9000:
$ ss -o state listening 'sport = 9000' Netid Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address:Port Peer Address:Port tcp 0 128 127.0.0.1:9000 *:* tcp 0 128 ::1:9000 :::*
You won’t see a connection to
google.com until a connection is established to port 9000; run
$ nc localhost 9000
then in another terminal you’ll see something like
$ ss -o state established 'dport = 80' Netid Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address:Port Peer Address:Port tcp 0 0 10.10.10.2:34948 18.104.22.168:http
with a peer address belonging to Google.
There are many complementary ways of doing it:
You can run your
ssh command with
-v option, and there will be information about forwarding:
debug1: Local connections to LOCALHOST:9000 forwarded to remote address google.com:80 debug1: Local forwarding listening on ::1 port 9000. debug1: channel 0: new [port listener] debug1: Local forwarding listening on 127.0.0.1 port 9000. debug1: channel 1: new [port listener]
netstat -tulpn and you should see if there is entry with
ssh running on port 9000. This shows listening ports. It does not show actively forwarded connections!
# netstat -tulpn Active Internet connections (only servers) Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address Foreign Address State PID/Program name tcp 0 0 127.0.0.1:9000 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN 15557/ssh
In your currently opened session that forwards ports just tap
~# quickly and you should see if anything is using your tunnel right now (you can try connecting to your localhost:9000 with
telnet command and see what happens).
The following connections are open: #2 client-session (t4 r0 i0/0 o0/0 e[write]/4 fd 6/7/8 sock -1 cc -1) #3 direct-tcpip: listening port 9000 for google.com port 80, connect from 127.0.0.1 port 57060 to 127.0.0.1 port 9000 (t4 r1 i0/0 o0/0 e[closed]/0 fd 9/9/-1 sock 9 cc -1)
netstat -tulpn should tell you about open ports on this machine, but there is no guarantee that those ports opened are the one you've made with connection. Most of the time you will not have root access to remote machine so you cannot check PID of your SSH session and PID in