You can’t do this after the fact, but you can download a consistent set of updated packages and upgrade to them later:
apt -d upgrade
will update the indexes and download all upgrade candidates, without actually performing the upgrade. As long as you don’t update the indexes again (which means not running
apt update and variants, and also disabling any jobs which might do that for you, such as
apt-daily), you’ll be able to apply the upgrade later by running
If you install
apt-listbugs, you’ll also be warned about unfixed critical bugs in the versions you’re about to upgrade to before you upgrade.
As Gilles mentioned, it sounds like you might find Debian testing more appropriate than unstable. Testing runs a few days behind unstable, and in addition to that, packages only migrate to testing if doing do doesn’t introduce a release-critical bug in testing, and maintains the testing package set coherent (i.e., dependencies are still available etc.). Do note however that there are security implications with running testing and it’s up to you to keep on top of security updates. The linked wiki page has many more details and best practices.
Both Debian testing and Debian unstable aren’t really user-oriented rolling distributions; they’re the staging grounds for the next stable release of Debian.