I am responding to this question four years later because the answer provided is a partial solution that does not completely address the original question.
I have the exact same desire as olibre, and wanted to come up with a complete solution. I come at it from a different perspective -- I'm used to Emacs line editing in bash -- but the issue is the same. I want to carry that over into Vim insert mode (only).
The following addresses all of the keybinding requests in the original question posed by olibre, plus few extras:
" Mimic Emacs Line Editing in Insert Mode Only
inoremap <C-A> <Home>
inoremap <C-B> <Left>
inoremap <C-E> <End>
inoremap <C-F> <Right>
" â is <Alt-B>
inoremap â <C-Left>
" æ is <Alt-F>
inoremap æ <C-Right>
inoremap <C-K> <Esc>lDa
inoremap <C-U> <Esc>d0xi
inoremap <C-Y> <Esc>Pa
inoremap <C-X><C-S> <Esc>:w<CR>a
The only bindings I cannot seem to get to work at this point are I have gotten Alt combinations to work based on another post's suggestion to just use the special characters. I have inserted them above.
<Alt-F>, which would skip entire words. Whenever I bind
<Meta> combinations, gVim (v7.4 on Windows) outputs accented characters. Please feel free to edit this answer if you have a solution to this issue.
-- (edit is not by original answer poster) --
I used the following under Neovim and Windows 10. You might need to change the "A" into "M" on other OSs as "alt" might be "meta" elsewhere. I haven't played with it enough.
inoremap <A-x> <Esc>:
inoremap <A-f> <Esc>lwi
inoremap <A-b> <Esc>bi
inoremap <A-S-f> <Esc>lWi
inoremap <A-S-b> <Esc>Bi