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Unfortunately I keep running into this issue when trying to install Debian. It occurs after I install the nvidia graphics drivers as per this guide https://wiki.debian.org/NvidiaGraphicsDrivers. I am following the Version 390.48 (via stretch-backports) guide and then the configuration steps via nvidia-xconfig.

How can I troubleshoot this and get it working?

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What Nvidia card do you have? Before did you install Nvidia drivers, did you use nouveau drivers? I had a similar problem with Debian stable and a Dell Inspiron that brings a hybrid graphics card: Intel and Nvidia, and the solution was to force through Xorg.conf that always the X systems start with Nvidia graphics. But a few months ago, with Debian buster, the problem was gone

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    GTX 1080 ti. Nope, I don't think so. Right now I am trying again with the Nvidia drivers from the Nvidia website. I only need my GPU for computing stuff, not display, so I am trying to set the Xorg.conf to use the intel onboard driver instead of nvidia. Probably no help to you unfortunately. – Matt Hough Dec 15 '18 at 14:40
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I have now managed to fix the issue. On a fresh install of Debian, these were the steps that allowed me to install the Nvidia drivers:

  1. Enter ttyl mode by pressing CTRL + ALT + F4 or CTRL + ALT + F1
  2. Stop the X server with the command sudo /etc/init.d/gdm3 stop. In my case this was gdm3. You may need to type CTRL + ALT + F4/F1 again to get back into ttyl.
  3. Run the cuda installation runfile: sudo sh ~/Downloads/cuda_<version>_linux.run
  4. Add the suggested variables to .bashrc:

    export PATH=/usr/local/cuda-<version>/bin${PATH:+:${PATH}}
    export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/local/cuda-<version>/lib64${LD_LIBRARY_PATH:+:${LD_LIBRARY_PATH}}
    export CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES=0
    

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