1

I have several Mediasonic ProBox HF2-SU3S2 with 4 drives - all with the same symptoms - extremely slow I/O (at best, about 10MB/s write). Each unit is configured with a software RAID 5 using mdadm with 4 drives.

It does appear it is connected to a USB 2.1 port and I expect it to be slower than USB 3.0 but 10MB/s seems suspiciously and ridiculously slow to me.

I can post smartctl -a output for each drive - but none of the drives appear to be failing and no errors are being logged into syslog related to the drives.

Here are the drives in the first unit:

Device Model:     ST2000DL003-9VT166
Device Model:     ST2000DM001-1ER164
Device Model:     ST2000DM001-1CH164
Device Model:     ST2000DM001-1CH164

Drives in second unit:

Device Model:     ST2000DL003-9VT166
Device Model:     ST2000DL003-9VT166
Device Model:     WDC WD20EADS-00R6B0
Device Model:     ST2000DL003-9VT166

Kernel version:

3.16.0-6-amd64 #1 SMP Debian 3.16.57-2

Output from mount:

/dev/md2 on /mnt/nas type ext4 (rw,relatime,stripe=256,data=ordered)
/dev/md3 on /mnt/nas2 type ext4 (rw,relatime,stripe=384,data=ordered)

Output from /proc/mdstat

md3 : active raid5 sdg[5] sdj[4] sdi[6] sdh[1]
      5860150272 blocks super 1.2 level 5, 512k chunk, algorithm 2 [4/4] [UUUU]
      bitmap: 0/15 pages [0KB], 65536KB chunk

md2 : active raid5 sdc1[0] sdf1[4] sdd1[6] sde1[5]
      5860141056 blocks super 1.2 level 5, 512k chunk, algorithm 2 [4/4] [UUUU]

Tests using dd:

root@talon:/mnt/nas2# dd if=/dev/zero of=/mnt/nas2/testfile bs=1G count=1 oflag=direct
1+0 records in
1+0 records out
1073741824 bytes (1.1 GB) copied, 71.1888 s, 15.1 MB/s

root@talon:/mnt/nas# dd if=/dev/zero of=/mnt/nas/testfile bs=1G count=1 oflag=direct
1+0 records in
1+0 records out
1073741824 bytes (1.1 GB) copied, 80.8867 s, 13.3 MB/s

Output from mdadm --detail

/dev/md2:
        Version : 1.2
  Creation Time : Wed May  1 22:26:29 2013
     Raid Level : raid5
     Array Size : 5860141056 (5588.67 GiB 6000.78 GB)
  Used Dev Size : 1953380352 (1862.89 GiB 2000.26 GB)
   Raid Devices : 4
  Total Devices : 4
    Persistence : Superblock is persistent

    Update Time : Wed Dec  5 21:29:12 2018
          State : clean
Active Devices : 4
Working Devices : 4
Failed Devices : 0
  Spare Devices : 0

         Layout : left-symmetric
     Chunk Size : 512K

           Name : dev-vm01:0
           UUID : dc4e42f6:3c3eb2f7:d6137927:51e328ef
         Events : 21688

    Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State
       0       8       33        0      active sync   /dev/sdc1
       5       8       65        1      active sync   /dev/sde1
       6       8       49        2      active sync   /dev/sdd1
       4       8       81        3      active sync   /dev/sdf1

=-===-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

/dev/md3:
        Version : 1.2
  Creation Time : Sat Mar 10 11:08:14 2018
     Raid Level : raid5
     Array Size : 5860150272 (5588.67 GiB 6000.79 GB)
  Used Dev Size : 1953383424 (1862.89 GiB 2000.26 GB)
   Raid Devices : 4
  Total Devices : 4
    Persistence : Superblock is persistent

  Intent Bitmap : Internal

    Update Time : Wed Dec  5 21:23:31 2018
          State : clean
Active Devices : 4
Working Devices : 4
Failed Devices : 0
  Spare Devices : 0

         Layout : left-symmetric
     Chunk Size : 512K

           Name : dragon:0
           UUID : 70d8f410:462c6714:50231e20:b08aca81
         Events : 151906

    Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State
       5       8       96        0      active sync   /dev/sdg
       1       8      112        1      active sync   /dev/sdh
       6       8      128        2      active sync   /dev/sdi
       4       8      144        3      active sync   /dev/sdj

More detailed information

root@talon:/mnt/nas# lsusb
Bus 009 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0001 Linux Foundation 1.1 root hub
Bus 004 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
Bus 008 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0001 Linux Foundation 1.1 root hub
Bus 007 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0001 Linux Foundation 1.1 root hub
Bus 003 Device 002: ID 152d:0567 JMicron Technology Corp. / JMicron USA Technology Corp.
Bus 003 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
Bus 006 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0001 Linux Foundation 1.1 root hub
Bus 005 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0001 Linux Foundation 1.1 root hub
Bus 002 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0003 Linux Foundation 3.0 root hub
Bus 001 Device 003: ID 152d:0567 JMicron Technology Corp. / JMicron USA Technology Corp.
Bus 001 Device 002: ID 2109:3431
Bus 001 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub

root@talon:/mnt/nas# lsusb -v -s 3:2

Bus 003 Device 002: ID 152d:0567 JMicron Technology Corp. / JMicron USA Technology Corp.
Device Descriptor:
  bLength                18
  bDescriptorType         1
  bcdUSB               2.10
  bDeviceClass            0 (Defined at Interface level)
  bDeviceSubClass         0
  bDeviceProtocol         0
  bMaxPacketSize0        64
  idVendor           0x152d JMicron Technology Corp. / JMicron USA Technology Corp.
  idProduct          0x0567
  bcdDevice            2.05
  iManufacturer          10 JMicron
  iProduct               11 USB to ATA/ATAPI Bridge
  iSerial                 5 152D00539000
  bNumConfigurations      1
  Configuration Descriptor:
    bLength                 9
    bDescriptorType         2
    wTotalLength           32
    bNumInterfaces          1
    bConfigurationValue     1
    iConfiguration          4 USB Mass Storage
    bmAttributes         0xc0
      Self Powered
    MaxPower               50mA
    Interface Descriptor:
      bLength                 9
      bDescriptorType         4
      bInterfaceNumber        0
      bAlternateSetting       0
      bNumEndpoints           2
      bInterfaceClass         8 Mass Storage
      bInterfaceSubClass      6 SCSI
      bInterfaceProtocol     80 Bulk-Only
      iInterface              6 MSC Bulk-Only Transport
      Endpoint Descriptor:
        bLength                 7
        bDescriptorType         5
        bEndpointAddress     0x81  EP 1 IN
        bmAttributes            2
          Transfer Type            Bulk
          Synch Type               None
          Usage Type               Data
        wMaxPacketSize     0x0200  1x 512 bytes
        bInterval               0
      Endpoint Descriptor:
        bLength                 7
        bDescriptorType         5
        bEndpointAddress     0x02  EP 2 OUT
        bmAttributes            2
          Transfer Type            Bulk
          Synch Type               None
          Usage Type               Data
        wMaxPacketSize     0x0200  1x 512 bytes
        bInterval               0
Binary Object Store Descriptor:
  bLength                 5
  bDescriptorType        15
  wTotalLength           22
  bNumDeviceCaps          2
  USB 2.0 Extension Device Capability:
    bLength                 7
    bDescriptorType        16
    bDevCapabilityType      2
    bmAttributes   0x00000002
      Link Power Management (LPM) Supported
  SuperSpeed USB Device Capability:
    bLength                10
    bDescriptorType        16
    bDevCapabilityType      3
    bmAttributes         0x00
    wSpeedsSupported   0x000e
      Device can operate at Full Speed (12Mbps)
      Device can operate at High Speed (480Mbps)
      Device can operate at SuperSpeed (5Gbps)
    bFunctionalitySupport   1
      Lowest fully-functional device speed is Full Speed (12Mbps)
    bU1DevExitLat          10 micro seconds
    bU2DevExitLat        2047 micro seconds
Device Status:     0x0001
  Self Powered


=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-==-=-=-=-==-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

root@talon:/mnt/nas# lsusb -v -s 1:3

Bus 001 Device 003: ID 152d:0567 JMicron Technology Corp. / JMicron USA Technology Corp.
Device Descriptor:
  bLength                18
  bDescriptorType         1
  bcdUSB               2.10
  bDeviceClass            0 (Defined at Interface level)
  bDeviceSubClass         0
  bDeviceProtocol         0
  bMaxPacketSize0        64
  idVendor           0x152d JMicron Technology Corp. / JMicron USA Technology Corp.
  idProduct          0x0567
  bcdDevice            2.05
  iManufacturer          10 JMicron
  iProduct               11 USB to ATA/ATAPI Bridge
  iSerial                 5 152D00539000
  bNumConfigurations      1
  Configuration Descriptor:
    bLength                 9
    bDescriptorType         2
    wTotalLength           32
    bNumInterfaces          1
    bConfigurationValue     1
    iConfiguration          4 USB Mass Storage
    bmAttributes         0xc0
      Self Powered
    MaxPower               50mA
    Interface Descriptor:
      bLength                 9
      bDescriptorType         4
      bInterfaceNumber        0
      bAlternateSetting       0
      bNumEndpoints           2
      bInterfaceClass         8 Mass Storage
      bInterfaceSubClass      6 SCSI
      bInterfaceProtocol     80 Bulk-Only
      iInterface              6 MSC Bulk-Only Transport
      Endpoint Descriptor:
        bLength                 7
        bDescriptorType         5
        bEndpointAddress     0x81  EP 1 IN
        bmAttributes            2
          Transfer Type            Bulk
          Synch Type               None
          Usage Type               Data
        wMaxPacketSize     0x0200  1x 512 bytes
        bInterval               0
      Endpoint Descriptor:
       bLength                 7
        bDescriptorType         5
        bEndpointAddress     0x02  EP 2 OUT
        bmAttributes            2
          Transfer Type            Bulk
          Synch Type               None
          Usage Type               Data
        wMaxPacketSize     0x0200  1x 512 bytes
        bInterval               0
Binary Object Store Descriptor:
  bLength                 5
  bDescriptorType        15
  wTotalLength           22
  bNumDeviceCaps          2
  USB 2.0 Extension Device Capability:
    bLength                 7
    bDescriptorType        16
    bDevCapabilityType      2
    bmAttributes   0x00000002
      Link Power Management (LPM) Supported
  SuperSpeed USB Device Capability:
    bLength                10
    bDescriptorType        16
    bDevCapabilityType      3
    bmAttributes         0x00
    wSpeedsSupported   0x000e
      Device can operate at Full Speed (12Mbps)
      Device can operate at High Speed (480Mbps)
      Device can operate at SuperSpeed (5Gbps)
    bFunctionalitySupport   1
      Lowest fully-functional device speed is Full Speed (12Mbps)
    bU1DevExitLat          10 micro seconds
    bU2DevExitLat        2047 micro seconds
Device Status:     0x0001
  Self Powered

"It does appear it is connected to a USB 2.1 port ". How did you confirm that?

See the output from lsusb.

bcdUSB               2.10

What motherboard or PC model is in use, and which USB port is used?

Motherboard: GA-78LMT-USB3 I will have to verify the revision and exact port.

Have you tried other ports on that PC, and if so, did you get the same result?

Yes - 2 units are plugged into the same desktop in different USB ports. I even get these speeds from a Raspberry Pi.

USB 2.0 is very much slower than USB 3.0. A hard disk directly connected through USB 2.0 will hardly ever go above 20 MB/sec, whereas on USB 3.0 even small 2.5" disks reach 100 MB/sec.

The size of the disks don't matter. And I don't buy that - there are many resources that state the speed will be slow but faster than 10MB/s.

I plugged one of the units into a known USB 3.0 port:

Bus 002 Device 002: ID 152d:0567 JMicron Technology Corp. / JMicron USA Technology Corp.
Device Descriptor:
  bLength                18
  bDescriptorType         1
  bcdUSB               3.00
  bDeviceClass            0 (Defined at Interface level)
  bDeviceSubClass         0
  bDeviceProtocol         0
  bMaxPacketSize0         9
  idVendor           0x152d JMicron Technology Corp. / JMicron USA Technology Corp.
  idProduct          0x0567
  bcdDevice            2.05
  iManufacturer          10 JMicron
  iProduct               11 USB to ATA/ATAPI Bridge
  iSerial                 5 152D00539000

Now I am getting 3x the transfer speed but no where near what it should be:

root@talon:/mnt/nas2# dd if=/dev/zero of=/mnt/nas2/testfile4 bs=1G count=1 oflag=direct
1+0 records in
1+0 records out
1073741824 bytes (1.1 GB) copied, 32.2737 s, 33.3 MB/s

Output from fdisk:

Disk /dev/sdc: 1.8 TiB, 2000398934016 bytes, 3907029168 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0xe3b023b3

Device     Boot Start        End    Sectors  Size Id Type
/dev/sdc1          63 3907024064 3907024002  1.8T 83 Linux


Disk /dev/sdd: 1.8 TiB, 2000398934016 bytes, 3907029168 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x580e98e6

Device     Boot Start        End    Sectors  Size Id Type
/dev/sdd1        2048 3907029167 3907027120  1.8T 83 Linux


Disk /dev/sde: 1.8 TiB, 2000398934016 bytes, 3907029168 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x000d19a7

Device     Boot Start        End    Sectors  Size Id Type
/dev/sde1        2048 3907028991 3907026944  1.8T 83 Linux


Disk /dev/sdf: 1.8 TiB, 2000398934016 bytes, 3907029168 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0xc16a55ab

Device     Boot Start        End    Sectors  Size Id Type
/dev/sdf1        2048 3907029167 3907027120  1.8T 83 Linux

Disk /dev/sdg: 1.8 TiB, 2000398934016 bytes, 3907029168 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0xc91d9f27

Device     Boot Start        End    Sectors  Size Id Type
/dev/sdg1        2048 3907028991 3907026944  1.8T fd Linux raid autodetect


Disk /dev/sdj: 1.8 TiB, 2000398934016 bytes, 3907029168 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x65cd7624

Device     Boot Start        End    Sectors  Size Id Type
/dev/sdj1        2048 3907028991 3907026944  1.8T fd Linux raid autodetect


Disk /dev/sdi: 1.8 TiB, 2000398934016 bytes, 3907029168 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x03221dd4

Device     Boot Start        End    Sectors  Size Id Type
/dev/sdi1        2048 3907028991 3907026944  1.8T fd Linux raid autodetect


Disk /dev/sdh: 1.8 TiB, 2000398934016 bytes, 3907029168 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0xc91329ab

Device     Boot Start        End    Sectors  Size Id Type
/dev/sdh1        2048 3907028991 3907026944  1.8T fd Linux raid autodetect

Edit: I did some troubleshooting and found out it's an issue with the USB controller. Not sure if it's a compatibility issue with Linux and the USB controller on the motherboard - but I tried with a later kernel and Linux out right refused to to even initialize the device on USB 3.0 ports. However, trying the probox on a laptop with USB 3.0 connections worked perfectly fine.

  • "It does appear it is connected to a USB 2.1 port ". How did you confirm that? What motherboard or PC model is in use, and which USB port is used? Have you tried other ports on that PC, and if so, did you get the same result? Please click on edit and add that to the original post, so all may see it. Also, on very long posts, it's OK to put the long text up somewhere others may see it and provide a link to the detail. – K7AAY Dec 7 '18 at 17:38
  • 1
    USB 2.0 is very much slower than USB 3.0. A hard disk directly connected through USB 2.0 will hardly ever go above 20 MB/sec, whereas on USB 3.0 even small 2.5" disks reach 100 MB/sec. This being said, is there any chance that those Seagate drives have 4 KiB physical sectors, and if so, have you aligned data structures correctly? – AlexP Dec 7 '18 at 18:18
1

USB2 speed (60MB/s) divided by the number of drives in RAID you are writing to at the same time (4) is equal to 15 MB/s, throw in some overhead and 10 sounds reasonable.

To test unmount the RAID to make sure it's not using the bus then run

hdparm -Tt /dev/sdh
  • That makes sense for USB 2.0 but I have it plugged into a USB 3.0 port and let's assume the transfer speed is 500MB/s - dividing by 4 should yield at least 100MB/s transfer rate but according to the dd test I only got 33MB/s. I'm going to update and try a newer kernel and see if that helps. – Natalie Adams Dec 9 '18 at 15:30
  • @NathanAdams Let me know when you have hdparm and lsusb output. Also check UAS on 4.14.87 kernel. – user1133275 Dec 9 '18 at 16:17
0

Turns out the built in USB controller is not worth the silicone it's printed on. I put in a PCI-e USB 3.1 controller and now I'm getting 61MB/s rather than 10MB/s. Still not "fast" in terms of data transference speeds - but 60MB/s is a HUGE difference.

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.