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I have a file (test.txt), where the separator is ;. How can I write out the last element from each row? (the length of each element is different)

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sed 's/.*;//' < test.txt

Deletes everything up to the last ; on each line.

Or with awk:

awk -F';' '{print $NF}' < test.txt

If you know in advance the number of fields, you can use cut. For instance, if there are 4 fields:

cut -d';' -f4 < test.txt

Beware though that if there are fewer than 4 fields on a line, then it will return an empty line except if there's only one field (no ; in the line), in which case it will output the full line (that first field). A known misfeature in cut.

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#!/bin/bash
while read line;
 do
 echo $(echo $line | awk -F ';' '{print $NF}')
done < test.txt

This is a simple script this will take each line of test.txt as input and will the print the last element separated by ;.

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Or in bash:

#!/bin/bash

while read line ; do
    echo ${a##*;}
done

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