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Installed Debian 9.6 in VirtualBox 25GB vhd and partitioning said that:
"Maximum size for this partition is 26.8GB"
"New partion size 26.8GB".

df shows 25669860, which seems to be correct.

Where did that extra 1.6GB come during installation?

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That's because the installer displays the size in decimal gigabytes, whereas other utilities use binary gigabytes.

In bytes, 25 * 2^30 = 26,843,545,600; or, in larger units, 25 GiB = 26.8 GB.

  • One binary gigabyte (sometimes called a gibibyte) is 2^30 = 1,073,741,824 bytes.

  • One decimal gigabyte is 10^9 = 1,000,000,000 bytes.

(This is an old dilemma. Generally, the prefixes kilo-, mega-, giga-, tera- etc. refer to powers of 10. By abuse of language, it became usual to use them loosely to refer to powers of 2 which have values close to the corresponding powers of 10. Commonly, the binary meaning is almost always meant when speaking of memory capacity; and the decimal meaning is almost always meant when speaking of bandwidth. But for disk storage capacity some utilities default to the decimal meaning, and others to the binary meaning.)

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