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There are at least two standards of Executable and Linkable Format (ELF), one of them

The older one, the TIS ELF Standard 1.2 is 106 pages while the SysV ABI is 157 pages but covers ELF only on pages 63-86 (23 pages).

How do these two standards relate to each other? And which one does Linux and GNU Linker use? What is the Tool Interface Standard?

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The TIS/ELF one covers ELF in general, while the System V ABI is a supplement which documents the x86_64 Application Binary Interface.

The second document does not contain any information about x86_64 since the architecture didn't exist at the time it was written.

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What is the Tool Interface Standard?

ELF format has been selected by the Tool Interface Standards committee (TIS) as a standard for portable object files for a variety of (Unix-Like) operating systems.

And which one does Linux and GNU Linker use?

Almost all of them use the SystemV standard.

name@host:~$ file /bin/ls
/bin/ls: ELF 64-bit LSB executable, x86-64, version 1 (SYSV), dynamically linked (uses shared libs), for GNU/Linux 2.6.15, stripped

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