For example, I would like to know the kernel version CentOS 7.4 1708 uses. What is the easiest way to do it?
Do I need to dig official website or there is a more easy way like a database or something around the internet?
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You can use the distribution comparison feature on DistroWatch.com to see which version of the kernel is used: look for “linux” in the list of packages.
Note that kernels used in long-running distributions such as CentOS will show a fixed base version, but they include many patches backported from later versions.