The only directory that I would be confident saying could be deleted is the empty
lost+found directory. It would be recreated by
fsck if that tool repairs the filesystem and finds dangling inodes (see "What is the purpose of the lost+found folder in Linux and Unix?").
The other directories may be used or may be assumed exist by various system tools, applications and/or package managers on your system. In particular, deleting
/usr/local (and possibly
/media) may well upset some software that relies on these directories being present. Both
/media (on Linux) are often used for mounting external drives, and
/home will contain your users' home directories (including your own).
A most general advice is to not blindly change things installed by default by your Linux distribution. The defaults (be it permissions on files or directories or various other configurations) have been tested by the distribution maintainers, and are supposed to work. Obviously, you may need to tweak things so that they suit your needs, but, you know, not blindly.