Why do I need to install network card driver (Intel wireless adapters, iwlwifi-8265 is shown as missing firmware by debian-installer) during Debian installation while in case of Ubuntu everything works out of the box? Drivers must be bundled within the Ubuntu image file? If it's licensing issues due to non-free software, then how do other drivers like graphic card, disk, bluetooth etc. come installed and work out of the box?. Those drivers are also non-free,right?
During the Ubuntu install the drivers will be installed from the
main and the
restricted repository ,
restricted contain the proprietary drivers.
non-free software should exist in the
On debian the proprietary drivers are available from the
Nonfree software is any software that is not free. Its use, redistribution or modification is prohibited, or requires you to ask for permission, or is restricted so much that you effectively can't do it freely.
Proprietary software is another name for nonfree software. In the past we subdivided nonfree software into “semifree software”, which could be modified and redistributed noncommercially, and “proprietary software”, which could not be. But we have dropped that distinction and now use “proprietary software” as synonymous with nonfree software.
firmware-iwlwifi is a non-free software which provide
iwlwifi-8265 driver, the official iso doesn' include the
non-free soft , you should be able to install the missing driver later by adding
non-free to your /etc/apt/sources.list:
deb http://deb.debian.org/debian stretch main contrib non-free deb-src http://deb.debian.org/debian stretch main contrib non-free deb http://deb.debian.org/debian-security/ stretch/updates main contrib non-free deb-src http://deb.debian.org/debian-security/ stretch/updates main contrib non-free deb http://deb.debian.org/debian stretch-updates main contrib non-free deb-src http://deb.debian.org/debian stretch-updates main contrib non-free
apt update apt install firmware-iwlwifi
You can use the Unofficial iso including the
non-free driver to get the wifi available during the system install.
Ubuntu : Repository