shopt dotglob in that same shell.
Chances are that
dotglob is off, which causes
* expansion (globbing) to not include files and directories the names of which begin with
. (including the special directory entries
.. which I'm fairly certain are never included in wildcard expansion; imagine the mayhem caused if
rm -rf ./* expanded so as to include
Thus, when you run
du -hs /home it counts everything in that directory, but
du -hs /home/* expands to only
du -hs /home/paper and so only the latter directory is counted.
/home/.ecryptfs contains the encrypted data, it makes sense that it would be about the same size as the decrypted data. Therefore, the files effectively get counted twice, but only when you point
du at the parent directory.
shopt -s dotglob to turn on the dotglob setting in that shell session, then run
sudo du -hs /home/* again, you will likely see that it shows as the same size as if you run
sudo du -hs /home.
Another way to demonstrate this is to put
echo at the beginning of the command. So, for example, instead of
du -hs /home/* you could try
echo du -hs /home/* which will show how the
* is expanded by the shell.
As an aside, I do recommend that you not start to habitually run everything through
sudo. Use sudo when you must, but not otherwise. There should be no need, for example, to run
ls -la /home as the superuser; the directory
/home is likely to be world readable.