I can give the -U attribute to a non-associative array so that it can't contain duplicate elements:

% declare -U path
% path=( ~/bin $path )
% path=( ~/bin $path )
% echo $path

Here, even though I've added ~/bin to the array path twice, the latter contains only one ~/bin element.

I'm looking for a way to print all the attributes which can be given to a parameter during an assignment, including this -U attribute.

I've looked at the typeset command in man zshbuiltins, and found this excerpt:

Except when assignments are made with name=value, using +m forces the matching parameters and their attributes to be printed, even inside a function.

So, I've tried executing these commands:

% declare -U path
% declare +m 'path'

Whose output is:

array path

While it tells me the type of the parameter (here an array), it doesn't tell me that it has the -U attribute.

Is there another command which would print all the attributes of a parameter?


You can use:

$ echo ${(t)path}

I'd expect typeset -p path (or declare; I prefer typeset as it's more portable) to give that information. It doesn't though in current versions which seems like a bug to me (Edit: now fixed).

You can also use:

typeset -U +

To list the variables with the unique attribute.

  • Thank you very much for fixing the bug. declare -p path prints typeset -a path=(...), but it doesn't report that path is a tied array (created with the -T option). Shouldn't it print typeset -a -T PATH=... path=(...)? OTOH, echo ${(t)path} prints array-special. I suppose special means the array is tied to PATH. Also, declare -T doesn't print anything, while I have 10 tied arrays (cdpath, fignore, ...). Is it supposed to ignore the tied arrays created automatically by the shell? – user938271 Sep 26 '18 at 10:24
  • Ah, typeset -a -T PATH=... path=(...) is not a valid command. It should have been typeset -T PATH path. So typeset -p must choose between reporting that the array is tied, or giving its value. It can't do both at the same time... – user938271 Sep 26 '18 at 10:33
  • 1
    No special is because $PATH is special to the shell. After typeset -T A a, I see a tag_local which is wrong as tag_local refers to a function (not variable) property. It should show tied there. – Stéphane Chazelas Sep 26 '18 at 10:33

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