I have some large files and i am ok with them being read at disk I/O capacity. I wish to have file-system cache free for other files. Is it possible to turn off file-system caching for specific files, on Linux? I wish to do this programmatically via native lib + java.

  • You can definitely do it per file open. (every time you open a file, you can chose not to cache). – ctrl-alt-delor Jun 20 '18 at 23:51

You're looking for your Java equivalent of the O_DIRECT flag for open(2). See http://man7.org/linux/man-pages/man2/open.2.html


You can do so for an opened instance of the file, but not persistently for the file itself. You do so per instance of the opened file by using direct IO. I'm not sure how to do this in Java, but in C and C++, you pass the O_DIRECT flag to the open() call.

Note however that this has a couple of potentially problematic implications, namely:

  • It's downright dangerous on certain filesystems. Most notably, current versions of BTRFS have serious issues with direct IO when you're writing to the file.
  • You can't mix direct IO with regular cached I/O unless you use some form of synchronization. Cached writes won't show up for certain to direct IO reads until you call fsync() or fdatasync(), and direct IO writes may not show up for cached IO reads ever.

There is however an alternative method if you can tolerate having the data temporarily in cache. You can use the POSIX fadvise interface (through the posix_fadvise system call on Linux) to tell the kernel you don't need data from the file when you're done reading it. By using the POSIX_FADV_DONTNEED flag, you can tell the kernel to drop a specific region of a particular file from cache. You can actually do this as you are processing the file too (by reading a chunk, and then immediately after reading calling posix_fadvise on that region of the file), though the regions you call this on have to be aligned to the system's page size. This is generally the preferred portable method of handling things, as it works on any POSIX compliant system with the real-time extensions (which is pretty much any POSIX compliant system).

  • +1 very nice detail – roaima Jun 21 '18 at 20:12
  • From the Linux open() man page: "Under Linux 2.4, transfer sizes, and the alignment of the user buffer and the file offset must all be multiples of the logical block size of the filesystem. Since Linux 2.6.0, alignment to the logical block size of the underlying storage (typically 512 bytes) suffices." – Andrew Henle Jun 22 '18 at 14:47
  • 1
    Also from that man page: ""The thing that has always disturbed me about O_DIRECT is that the whole interface is just stupid, and was probably designed by a deranged monkey on some serious mind-controlling substances."—Linus" Well, on Linus Torvald's OS, direct IO does act deranged. On Irix and Solaris, though, it works just fine. So, if you do use direct IO on Linux, test thoroughly on your entire system, and if you change anything, test everything again. – Andrew Henle Jun 22 '18 at 14:50
  • Note also on Linux that the underlying filesystem may or may not support direct IO, and even if it does officially support it, that support may be sketchy at best (per your comment on BTRFS...). For example, only full page- or block-size IO operations may be permitted, making reading/writing the final smaller-than-a-full-page bit of data in a file impossible. – Andrew Henle Jun 22 '18 at 14:55

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