No, you cannot obscure the password. Your computer needs to be able to present the password to the server. This means that whatever means you use to obscure the password, your computer has to be able to take that obscured form and decode it. If your computer can do it, anybody's computer can do it.
The case of EAP is different on the surface because for EAP the client needs to present the NTML hash of the password. But that means that effectively the password is that hash and not the human-readable input. So in fact, even with
hash: in the configuration file, the configuration file does contain the password in cleartext.
The tutorial you read is very misleading by implying that hashing the EAP password in the file has a significant security benefit. In fact, it has no benefit at all if you don't use that password for anything else, since as we saw above the effective password is the hash. If the same password is also used for something else (where the server wants the password and not its hash) then there is some benefit, but it's limited because MD4 is quite easy to brute force.
If you don't want to type your password every time, your best bet is to store the password in a password manager and make sure that only you can access the password manager. Make sure that it's encrypted on disk in case someone steals your computer (of course this means that you'll have to decrypt the password container at some point after bootig). But if someone gains access to your computer, they'll gain access to the password. There's no way to prevent that.
If you can influence the server's configuration and want to improve security, consider enabling Kerberos authentication, which if configured thoroughly can let you access network shares using your login password.