2

There is an application called “HDDscan” for Windows: http://hddscan.com/

It can also verify disks by reading them in a way they only get transferred into the internal buffer of the drive, and somehow, only the data integrity gets checked.

From website: “In Verify mode device reads block of data into drive’s internal buffer only and checks for consistency, there is no data transfer through an interface connector/cable. The program measures operation time for each block. The program tests blocks one by one from minimum to maximum. In Read mode device reads block of data and transfers it thorough interface to the host controller. The program reads block of data into a temporary buffer and measures time of operation for each block. The program tests blocks one by one from minimum to maximum.”

Is there a compareable way to verify data integrity in Linux?

3

Yes.

smartctl. See the -t option

-t TEST, --test=TEST
  Executes TEST immediately. The '-C' option can be used in conjunction with 
  this option to run the short or long (and also for ATA devices, selective or 
  conveyance) self-tests in captive mode (known as "foreground mode" for SCSI 
  devices). Note that only one test type can be run at a time, so only one 
  test type should be specified per command line. Note also that if a computer 
  is shutdown or power cycled during a self-test, no harm should result. The 
  self-test will either be aborted or will resume automatically.
  [...]

Man page at https://linux.die.net/man/8/smartctl

  • This isn’t the same as verify mode in HDDscan. The latter uses ATAPI command 40h, “read verify sector(s)”, which instructs the drive to read from a range of sectors, verifying that the sectors are indeed readable, without returning any data to the host. – Stephen Kitt May 26 '18 at 13:11

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