2

I've looked at the hexdump of both libc.dylib and xlib.dylib, and I can't find the symbols for the C functions in those libraries within those files.

I figure they should be in there, because I've done hexdumps of executable files and the symbols for variables and functions are stored in the symbol table in plain text form.

Of course, this is a linkable object file that I'm dealing with now, but I'm wondering how you can link to symbols in these libraries if the symbols aren't in the object files.

  • What does nm print? – ajeh May 18 '18 at 20:41
  • I do not have xlib.dylib in my High Sierra... – Rui F Ribeiro May 18 '18 at 22:14
  • Yeah, I think it was something else. I was pulling the filename from memory at the time and didn't have time to check it. – Shoblade X May 19 '18 at 0:46
3

As you can see in MacOS High Sierra:

$ ls -la libc.dylib 
lrwxr-xr-x  1 root  wheel  15 25 Nov 01:32 libc.dylib -> libSystem.dylib

libc.dylib is a symbolic link to libSystem.dylib.

When trying to display the contents of libSystem.dylib, you won't see many chars as depending on you using strings or cat, you will find unprintable characters, or end-of-file characters prematurely.

For understanding this, see the output of strings:

$ strings /usr/lib/libSystem.dylib 
executable_path=
@(#)PROGRAM:System.B  PROJECT:Libsystem-1252.50.4 

libSystem.dylib is however a cache of several libraries chained together.

Choosing libc.dylib in High Sierra:

$ otool -L /usr/lib/libSystem.dylib
libSystem.dylib:
    /usr/lib/libSystem.B.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 1252.50.4)
    /usr/lib/system/libcache.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 80.0.0)
    /usr/lib/system/libcommonCrypto.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 60118.50.1)
    /usr/lib/system/libcompiler_rt.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 62.0.0)
    /usr/lib/system/libcopyfile.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 1.0.0)
    /usr/lib/system/libcorecrypto.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 562.50.17)
    /usr/lib/system/libdispatch.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 913.50.12)
    /usr/lib/system/libdyld.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 551.3.0)
    /usr/lib/system/libkeymgr.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 28.0.0)
    /usr/lib/system/liblaunch.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 1205.50.76)
    /usr/lib/system/libmacho.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 906.0.0)
    /usr/lib/system/libquarantine.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 86.0.0)
    /usr/lib/system/libremovefile.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 45.0.0)
    /usr/lib/system/libsystem_asl.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 356.50.1)
    /usr/lib/system/libsystem_blocks.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 67.0.0)
    /usr/lib/system/libsystem_c.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 1244.50.9)
    /usr/lib/system/libsystem_configuration.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 963.50.8)
    /usr/lib/system/libsystem_coreservices.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 51.0.0)
    /usr/lib/system/libsystem_darwin.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 1.0.0)
    /usr/lib/system/libsystem_dnssd.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 878.50.17)
    /usr/lib/system/libsystem_info.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 1.0.0)
    /usr/lib/system/libsystem_m.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 3147.50.1)
    /usr/lib/system/libsystem_malloc.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 140.50.6)
    /usr/lib/system/libsystem_network.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 1.0.0)
    /usr/lib/system/libsystem_networkextension.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 1.0.0)
    /usr/lib/system/libsystem_notify.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 172.0.0)
    /usr/lib/system/libsystem_sandbox.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 765.50.51)
    /usr/lib/system/libsystem_secinit.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 30.0.0)
    /usr/lib/system/libsystem_kernel.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 4570.51.2)
    /usr/lib/system/libsystem_platform.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 161.50.1)
    /usr/lib/system/libsystem_pthread.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 301.50.1)
    /usr/lib/system/libsystem_symptoms.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 1.0.0)
    /usr/lib/system/libsystem_trace.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 829.50.17)
    /usr/lib/system/libunwind.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 35.3.0)
    /usr/lib/system/libxpc.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 1205.50.76)

Also as correctly @ajeh also suggests:

$ nm /usr/lib/libSystem.dylib  
0000000000001a6a T R8289209$_close
0000000000001a6f T R8289209$_fork
0000000000001a74 T R8289209$_fsync
0000000000001a79 T R8289209$_getattrlist
0000000000001a7e T R8289209$_getrlimit
0000000000001a83 T R8289209$_getxattr
0000000000001a88 T R8289209$_open
0000000000001a8d T R8289209$_pthread_attr_destroy
0000000000001a92 T R8289209$_pthread_attr_init
0000000000001a97 T R8289209$_pthread_attr_setdetachstate
0000000000001a9c T R8289209$_pthread_create
0000000000001aa1 T R8289209$_pthread_mutex_lock
0000000000001aa6 T R8289209$_pthread_mutex_unlock
0000000000001aab T R8289209$_pthread_self
0000000000001ab0 T R8289209$_ptrace
0000000000001ab5 T R8289209$_read
0000000000001aba T R8289209$_setattrlist
0000000000001abf T R8289209$_setrlimit
0000000000001ac4 T R8289209$_sigaction
0000000000001ac9 T R8289209$_stat
0000000000001ace T R8289209$_sysctl
0000000000001ad3 T R8289209$_time
0000000000001ad8 T R8289209$_unlink
0000000000001add T R8289209$_write
0000000000001f98 S ___System_BVersionNumber
0000000000001f60 S ___System_BVersionString
00000000000022d0 S ___crashreporter_info__
                 U ___error
                 U ___keymgr_initializer
                 U ___libdarwin_init
                 U ___libkernel_init
                 U ___libplatform_init
                 U ___malloc_init
                 U ___pthread_init
                 U ___stack_logging_early_finished
                 U __asl_fork_child
                 U __dirhelper
                 U __dyld_fork_child
                 U __dyld_initializer
                 U __libSC_info_fork_child
                 U __libSC_info_fork_parent
                 U __libSC_info_fork_prepare
                 U __libc_fork_child
                 U __libc_initializer
                 U __libcoreservices_fork_child
                 U __libsecinit_initializer
                 U __libtrace_fork_child
                 U __libtrace_init
                 U __libxpc_initializer
                 U __mach_fork_child
                 U __malloc_fork_child
                 U __malloc_fork_parent
                 U __malloc_fork_prepare
                 U __notify_fork_child
                 U __pthread_atfork_child
                 U __pthread_atfork_child_handlers
                 U __pthread_atfork_parent
                 U __pthread_atfork_parent_handlers
                 U __pthread_atfork_prepare
                 U __pthread_atfork_prepare_handlers
                 U __pthread_clear_qos_tsd
                 U __pthread_exit_if_canceled
                 U _close
                 U _dispatch_atfork_child
                 U _dispatch_atfork_parent
                 U _dispatch_atfork_prepare
                 U _dlsym
                 U _dyld_get_program_sdk_version
                 U _exit
                 U _fork
                 U _free
                 U _fsync
                 U _getattrlist
                 U _getrlimit
                 U _getxattr
0000000000001ae2 T _libSystem_atfork_child
0000000000001a47 T _libSystem_atfork_parent
0000000000001a22 T _libSystem_atfork_prepare
000000000000194a t _libSystem_initializer
00000000000022a0 s _libSystem_initializer.libc_funcs
0000000000002220 s _libSystem_initializer.libkernel_funcs
0000000000002280 s _libSystem_initializer.libpthread_funcs
                 U _libdispatch_init
0000000000001b28 t _mach_init_old
00000000000022c8 D _mach_init_routine
                 U _malloc
                 U _open
                 U _pthread_attr_destroy
                 U _pthread_attr_init
                 U _pthread_attr_setdetachstate
                 U _pthread_create
                 U _pthread_mutex_lock
                 U _pthread_mutex_unlock
                 U _pthread_self
                 U _ptrace
                 U _read
                 U _realloc
                 U _setattrlist
                 U _setrlimit
                 U _sigaction
                 U _stat
                 U _strncmp
                 U _sysctl
                 U _time
                 U _unlink
                 U _write
                 U _xpc_atfork_child
                 U _xpc_atfork_parent
                 U _xpc_atfork_prepare
                 U dyld_stub_binder

However, a pure nm in libSystem.dylib will show the symbols of all the included libraries lumped together.

It might be slightly more interesting to do it to one by one as in this bash script:

#!/bin/bash
for i in `otool -L /usr/lib/libSystem.dylib | sed "1d" | awk ' { print $1 } '` 
do 
    echo $i
    echo "======="
    nm $i 
    echo
done

Or as one liner:

for i in `otool -L /usr/lib/libSystem.dylib | sed "1d" | awk ' { print $1 } '`; do echo $i; echo "=======" ; nm $i ; echo ; done

As for the hex dump, as you haven't show it to us, I will assume you are being confused by the 16-bit output (I think).

For seeing a few string dumps, try:

$ od -tc /usr/lib/libSystem.dylib  | tr -d " "  | grep -v "\\\\" | sed 's/^[0-9]*//g' | less
*
*
/usr/lib/libSyst
/system/libcache
/usr/lib/system/
libcommonCrypto.
/usr/lib/system/
libcompiler_rt.d
/usr/lib/system/
libcopyfile.dyli
/usr/lib/system/
libcorecrypto.dy
/usr/lib/system/
libdispatch.dyli
/usr/lib/system/
/system/libkeymg
/usr/lib/system/
/system/libmacho
/usr/lib/system/
libquarantine.dy
/usr/lib/system/
libremovefile.dy
/usr/lib/system/
libsystem_asl.dy
/usr/lib/system/
libsystem_blocks
/usr/lib/system/
libsystem_c.dyli
/usr/lib/system/
libsystem_config
/system/libsyste
m_coreservices.d
/usr/lib/system/
libsystem_darwin
/usr/lib/system/
libsystem_dnssd.
/usr/lib/system/
libsystem_info.d
/usr/lib/system/
libsystem_m.dyli
/usr/lib/system/
libsystem_malloc
/usr/lib/system/
libsystem_networ
/usr/lib/system/
libsystem_networ
kextension.dylib
/usr/lib/system/
libsystem_notify
/usr/lib/system/
libsystem_sandbo
/usr/lib/system/
libsystem_secini
/usr/lib/system/
libsystem_kernel
/usr/lib/system/
libsystem_platfo
/system/libsyste
/system/libsyste
m_symptoms.dylib
/usr/lib/system/
libsystem_trace.
/usr/lib/system/
/system/libxpc.d
*
AVSPM211306I211317H211323H215=
@(#)PROGRAM:Syst
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@__pthre
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@_reallo
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__libdarwin_init
__libplatform_in
qH0@___stack_log
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@__dyld_fork_chi
@__libSC_info_f
__libSC_info_for
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__libc_fork_chil
@__libcoreserv
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__malloc_fork_ch
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_pthread_atfork_
thread_atfork_ch
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read_atfork_prep
@_dispatch_atfo
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dyld_get_program
read_attr_destro
@_pthread_attr
thread_mutex_loc
q2000040@_xpc_atfork
pc_atfork_parent
setdetachstate
%025226003006006006006006006006006006

*
%#005005005005005005005005005005
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R8289209$_pthrea
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ymgr_initializer
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alloc_fork_child
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read_clear_qos_t
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u264241247254B346e215364211362i2452q
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*
/lib/libSystem.B
/usr/lib/system/
/system/libcommo
/system/libcompi
/system/libcopyf
tem/libcorecrypt
/usr/lib/system/
libdispatch.dyli
/lib/system/libd
tem/libkeymgr.dy
/lib/system/libl
tem/libmacho.dyl
/lib/system/libq
/system/libremov
tem/libsystem_as
/usr/lib/system/
libsystem_blocks
/usr/lib/system/
libsystem_c.dyli
/lib/system/libs
ystem_configurat
tem/libsystem_co
reservices.dylib
/lib/system/libs
ystem_darwin.dyl
/lib/system/libs
ystem_dnssd.dyli
/lib/system/libs
ystem_info.dylib
/lib/system/libs
/system/libsyste
/system/libsyste
/system/libsyste
m_networkextensi
tem/libsystem_no
tem/libsystem_sa
tem/libsystem_se
tem/libsystem_ke
tem/libsystem_pl
/system/libsyste
/system/libsyste
m_symptoms.dylib
/lib/system/libs
ystem_trace.dyli
/lib/system/libu
tem/libxpc.dylib
*
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*
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tem_BVersionNumb
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ializer.libkerne
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u264241247254B346e215364211362i2452q
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