Chrome stores its passwords in a SQLite database, like Firefox, but with different names. The database is the file
Login Data in your profile directory. You can view its contents with an SQLite interface. For example, using the command line tool
$ sqlite3 ~/.config/google-chrome/System\ Profile/Login\ Data
SQLite version 3.11.0 2016-02-15 17:29:24
Enter ".help" for usage hints.
sqlite> select origin_url, username_value, signon_realm from logins;
sqlite3, you can use
.tables to list the available tables and
.schema to see the list of columns in each table.
If Chrome is currently using this profile, the database file will be locked. To view it with
sqlite3, make a copy first.
You don't need a master password to dump the database because Chrome does not have a master password feature. It used to, but that feature was removed in Chrome 48 which came out in January 2016.
Chrome may use your system's password storage instead. It uses the Gnome keyring or the KDE wallet if available. I don't know what it uses to detect the availability of the system keyring. If Chrome has always used the system keyring on your system, its password database will be empty.
To view the contents of the Gnome keyring interactively, use Seahorse. There are tools to access it in scripts, including a
gnomekeyring Python library and the
keyring Python library as well as the command line tool
secret-tool from libsecret.
If you want to store your passwords in an encrypted form, make sure that Chrome is using your system keyring, and make sure that your keyring is encrypted. Alternatively, make sure that your home directory, if not your whole disk, is encrypted.