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Reading Bash-4.4 Release Available, I noticed the following sentence.

There is a new bindable variable, `colored-completion-prefix', which, if set, causes the common prefix of a set of possible completions to be displayed in color.

I tried with export colored-completion-prefix=1 but I got an error message.

-bash: export: `colored-completion-prefix=1': not a valid identifier

I tried set -o colored-completion-prefix 1, but I got this error message.

-bash: set: colored-completion-prefix: invalid option name

shopt -s colored-completion-prefix gave me a similar error message.

-bash: shopt: colored-completion-prefix: invalid shell option name

What does bindable variable mean, in that page? How can I set that bindable variable?

The Bash version I am running is the following one, given from CTRL + X + V in a Bash window.

GNU bash, version 4.4.12(1)-release (x86_64-pc-linux-gnu)

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It's referring to a readline variable.

In your ~/.config/readline/inputrc file:

set colored-completion-prefix on

You may also want:

set colored-stats on

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